Cyril Measson Thesis Statements


Druk: Offsetdrukkerij Kanters B.V., Alblasserdam. ISBN 90-6256-183-7 (2 volumes). / '-j* jj. ® 1983 D. T. Runia, Kampen. \ \. —. ,'. All rights reserved. No part of ...

TE

D.T. Runia

PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA TIMAEUS OF PLATO,

^5? VU Boekhandel

PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA AND THE TIMAEUS OF PLATO

II

Druk: Offsetdrukkerij Kanters B.V., Alblasserdam

/ '-j* jj

ISBN 90-6256-183-7 (2 volumes)

® 1983 D. T. Runia, Kampen

\

\



,'

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the holder of the copyright.

VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT T E A M S T E R D A M

PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA AND THE TIMAEUS OF PLATO ACADEMISCH PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor in de letteren aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam, op gezag van de rector magnificus dr. H. Verheul, hoogleraar in de faculteit der wiskunde en natuurwetenschappen, in het openbaar te verdedigen op donderdag 2 juni 1983 te 15.30 uur in het hoofdgebouw der universiteit, De Boelelaan 1105

door

DOUWE THEUNIS RUNIA geboren te Marknesse

VU Boekhandel

Promotor: Prof. dr. A. P. Bos Copromotor: Prof. dr. J . C. M. van Winden Referent: Prof. dr. C. Datema

NOTES Notes 1. lity

I 1 . The

'publication'

to 3 6 0 - 3 5 5

of G . E . L . O w e n h a s not 2.

to p l a c e

received

On

recent

B.C.

of

(Philadelpia

reached

the T i m a e u s

general

acceptance

the c o m p i l a t i o n

surveys

the T i m a e u s

Plato

of

of

in a m u c h

seventy

earlier

(cf. G u t h r i e

the P e n t a t e u c h a n d

in B . S . C h i I d s ,

1979)

can be dated w i t h

the a g e

Introduction

110-135, C.Houtman,

to

its

stage of

5.243 w i t h

probabiThe attempt

Plato's

career

references).

attribution

the O l d

Inleiding

reasonable

in 3 5 7 B . C .

to M o s e s

Testament

as

in the P e n t a t e u c h

see

the

Scripture (Kampen

1980). 3. T h e c h r o n o l o g y of P h i l o ' s l i f e is a l m o s t w h o l l y o b s c u r e . It is g e n e r a l ly a g r e e d that h e m u s t h a v e b e e n b o r n b e t w e e n 25 a n d 10 B . C . a n d d i e d in t h e decade after 40 A . D .

Notes

I 2.

1 . A v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e and u p - t o - d a t e b i b l i o g r a p h y of P h i l o c a n b e a c q u i red by c o n s u l t i n g the f o l l o w i n g : H . L . G o o d h a r t and E . R . G o o d e n o u g h , A g e n e r a l b i b l i o g r a p h y of P h i l o (New H a v e n 1 9 3 8 ) ( w o r k s up to 1 9 3 8 ) ; L . H . F e l d m a n , S c h o l a r s h i p o n P h i l o and J o s e p h u s ( 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 6 2 ) ( N e w Y o r k 1 9 6 3 ? ) ; A . V . N a z z a r o , R e c e n ti S t u d i F i l o n i a n i ( 1 9 6 3 - 1 9 7 0 ) ( N a p l e s 1 9 7 3 ) ; G . D e l l i n g and R . M a s e r , B i b l i o g r a p h i e zur j ü d i s c h - h e l l e n i s t i s c h e n u n d i n t e r t e s t a m e n t a r i s c h e n L i t e r a t u r 1 9 0 0 1970 TU 106 ( B e r l i n 1 9 7 5 ) 5 6 - 8 0 ; b i b l i o g r a p h i e s by E . H i l g e r t in e a c h i s s u e of S t u d i a P h i l o n i c a (works f r o m 1963 o n w a r d s ) . S u r v e y s of the d e v e l o p m e n t of P h i l o n i c s c h o l a r s h i p are f o u n d in V ö l k e r 1-47, A r n a l d e z F E 1 . 1 7 - 1 1 2 , N i k i p r o w e z k y p a s s i m (cf. a l s o h i s a r t i c l e ' L ' e x é g è s e de P h i l o n d ' A l e x a n d r i e ' R H R 53 (1973)309-329). T h e r e c e n t s u r v e y by F a r a n d o s 7-149 f a i l s to m a k e good its t i t l e ' G e s c h i c h t e d e r P h i l o n - F o r s c h u n g ' t h r o u g h its m a n i f e s t l a c k of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and c l a r i t y . A b i b l i o g r a p h y of P h i l o n i c S t u d i e s ( 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 7 5 ) and a ' c r i t i c a l a n d s y n t h e t i c s u r v e y ' of r e c e n t s c h o l a r s h i p o n P h i l o b y E . H i l g e r t and P . B o r g e n r e s p e c t i v e l y are p r o m i s e d in the f o r t h c o m i n g v o l u m e o n P h i l o in A N R W d u e to a p p e a r in 1 9 8 3 . A l s o e a g e r l y a w a i t e d is a c r i t i c a l b i b l i o g r a p h y on P h i l o b e i n g p r e p a r e d by R . R a d i c e ( L u i n o ) . It w i l l c o n t a i n a s e c t i o n o n 'works in p r o g r e s s ' . (For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s see n o w the B i b l i o g r a p h y . ) 2

Notes 1.

I2.1. By

quoted

R.Reitzenstein,

by V ö l k e r

Das

iranische

2. F o r m o r e d e t a i l e d d e s c u s s i o n s see e n o u g h , A i n t r o d u c t i o n to P h i l o J u d a e u s wetzky passim. 3.

Erlösungsmysterium

(Bonn

1921)

106,

5.

I.Heinemann,

Philons

griechische

the i l l u m i n a t i n g c h a p t e r (Oxford 1 9 6 2 ) 1-29, a n d 2

und

jüdische

Bildung

in E . R . G o o d also Nikipro-

(Breslau

1932,

r e p r . 1962) . 4. ism

E.R.Goodenough, (New H a v e n

1935).

By L i g h t , L i g h t : The

title

the m y s t i c

is b a s e d

on

gospel

Praem.46.

of H e l l e n i s t i c

Juda-

NOTES

454

TO

5. W . V ö l k e r , F o r t s c h r i t t und V o l l e n d u n g , b e i P h i l o v o n A l e x a n d r i e n TU 49.1 (Leipzig 1938). T h e m o n o g r a p h is r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t to c o n s u l t b e c a u s e it l a c k s a n y f o r m of i n d e x . I h a v e p r e p a r e d an i n d e x l o c o r u m of P h i l o n i c p a s s a g e s , w h i c h w i l l b e p u b l i s h e d in S t u d i a P h i l o n i c a . 6.

H.A.Wolfson,

Christianity

and

the h i s t o r i a n -s,

Philo: Foundations

Islam 2 v o l s .

of p h i l o s o p h y

by L . W . S c h w a r z , W o l f s o n

of

religious

should

1947, 1962 ) .

be a s l e u t h !

of H a r v a r d :

philosophy 2

(Cambr.Mass. Portrait

See t h e

in

Judaism,

According fascinating

of a s c h o l a r

7. A . - J . F e s t u g i è r e , La révélation d'Hermès Trismégiste 1954, r e p r . 1 9 8 1 ) , vol.2 Le dieu cosmique 519-585.

to W o l f son biography

(Philadelphia 4 vols.

1978).

(Paris

1945-

8. O n e m i g h t add that p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n s of P h i l o n i c s c h o l a r s w e r e n o less d i v i d e d . F o r the y e a r s 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 2 0 o n e c o u l d put f o r w a r d the q u i n t e t Z e l ler (or D r u m m o n d ) - C o h n - S c h w a r z - B o u s s e t - R e i t z e n s t e i n , f o r the y e a r s 1 8 3 0 - 1 8 7 0 the q u i n t e t G f r ö r e r - D a h n e - R i t t e r - G e o r g i i - L i p s i u s . See the s u r v e y in V ö l k e r 1 - 4 7 . 9. F o r W o l f s o n A l e x a n d r i a n and P a l e s t i n i a n J u d a i s m a r e c o l l a t e r a l f o r m s of ' n a t i v e J u d a i s m ' ; h e a g r e e s w i t h S . B e l k i n , P h i l o and the O r a l L a w ( C a m b r . M a s s . 1 9 4 0 ) , that P h i l o w a s w e l l - a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e H e b r e w l a n g u a g e and P a l e s t i n i a n traditions. H e i n e m a n n (and a l s o G c o d e n o u g h ) d e n i e d that h e k n e w H e b r e w and m i n i m i z e d the ' P a l e s t i n i a n c o n n e c t i o n ' , as d i d S . S a n d m e l in h i s s t u d y P h i l o ' s p l a c e in J u d a i s m : a s t u d y of c o n c e p t i o n s of A b r a h a m in J e w i s h l i t e r a t u r e ( C i n cinnati 1 9 5 6 ) ; cf. further Sandmel 127-134. 10. C f . the e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d in the m o n o g r a p h s by T . H . B i l l i n g s , T h e P l a t o n i s m of P h i l o J u d a e u s ( d i s s . C h i c a g o 1 9 1 9 ) , and E . T u r o w s k i , Die W i e d e r s p i e g e l u n g des stoischen Systems bei Philon v o n A l e x a n d r e i a (diss. K ö n i g s b e r g , L e i p z i g 1 9 2 7 ) . A t h i r d d i s s e r t a t i o n a f f i r m e d the i n d i s p e n s a b l e r o l e of P o s i d o n i u s , by M . A p e l t , D e r a t i o n i b u s q u i b u s d a m q u a e P h i l o n i A l e x a n drino cum Posidonio intercedunt (diss. J e n a , L e i p z i g 1 9 0 7 ) . See further N i k i prowetzky 12. 11. F a r a n d o s 1 1 5 - 1 3 9 , in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g a ' S t o a - R i c h t u n g ' and R i c h t u n g ' in P h i l o n i c s c h o l a r s h i p , w r o n g l y a b s o l u t i z e s the r o l e b o t h in P h i l o ' s w r i t i n g s and in the r e s e a r c h d o n e o n t h e m .

a 'Platonof p h i l o s o p h y

12. It is i n t e r e s t i n g to o b s e r v e that in h i s f a m o u s s t u d y of S p i n o z a ' s t h o u g h t W o l f s o n a l s o c o n c l u d e d that the E u c l i d e a n f o r m of the E t h i c a w a s a r t i f i c i a l , w h e r e a s m o s t s c h o l a r s c o n s i d e r t h e m e t h o d m o r e g e o m é t r i c o to b e a d e l i b e r a t e f o r m a l i z a t i o n of S p i n o z a ' s r a d i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m .

Notes 1.

I

Cf. Feldman

Problème 2.

3.

4.

2 . n . l ) and

Philo-Forschung'

R.Arnaldez, J.Pouilloux, (Paris

III-IV,

1961- ) .

Quaestiones

tica, De Deo

Lyon

op.cit.(I

der neueren

Alexandrie sim

2.2.

The proceedings 11-15 Septembre M . H a r l , Quis

andrie vol.15

Ibid.13-162.

6.

M.Harl,

in E x o d u m ,

of

promised

yet

article

(edd.), Les dealing with

De a n i m a l i b u s

by H . T h y e n ,

'Die

23(1955)230-246.

and

Oeuvres

de P h i l o n

Quaestiones

the F r a g m e n t a

in

d'

Gene-

(Hypothe-

appeared.

the C o l l o q u e were published

1966

(Paris

1967)(abbreviated heres

sit

in L e s

in P h i l o n to

d'Alexandrie:

PAL)•

Oeuvres

de P h i l o n

d'Alex-

1967).

'Cosmologie

Philon d'Alexandrie' the De Deo

the p a r t s

rerum divinarum

(Paris

5.

C.Mondésert

Only

e t c . ) h a v e not

the r e v i e w ThRdschau

PAL at

grecque 189-203.

192n.2 h a s ,

et r e p r é s e n t a t i o n s The F r e n c h

juives

translation

to m y k n o w l e d g e ,

not

dans

and

l'oeuvre

commentary

materialized.

de on

455

P A G E S 6-11

7.

PAL 189, FE 15.151.

8.

FE

9.

FE 15.63.

10.

Cf. esp. FE 15.16-22.

taken of

15.20,62-63.

to m e a n

pertaining

an interiorization

cal' definition

'Religious'

to a d i r e c t

of f a i t h

It f a i l s

to d o j u s t i c e

reality

is G o d ' s

creation,

in o u r v i e w of that FE

12.

Cf.

Ibid.74-87. PAL 2 0 3 .

15.

Cf.

ibid.199, FE

16.

SPh

1(1972)1.

17.

Six

issues, three

B.L.Mack, analysis

'Exegetical

21.

May one protest

pretation and

the paper

a by no means

method

conviction attitude

that

'phenomenologiin m o d e r n t h e w h o l e of

is a p r i o r i

is r e l i g i o n '

inevitable

(H.E.Runner).

b i e n n i a l ,, h a v e

corpus'

atypical

characteristic

t r a d i t i o n s in P h i l o

example

in A l e x a n d r i a n

unsufferable

demands

Judaism:

technical

on the patience

Prolego-

a program for

of t h e A l l e g o r y

would

be the 'reasoned

for a given

to v a r i o u s

fields

jargon

which

of t h e r e a d e r .

( i b i d . 8 0 ) : 'The d i s t i n c t i v e

the correspondence

it it a n a l o g i c a l l y

Judaeus:

published

SPh 3(1974-75)71-115.

the almost great

so f a r b e e n

SPh 1(1972)3-26.

traditions

against

and makes

of e s t a b l i s h i n g

applying

' S o u r c e s and

of t h e P h i l o n i c

Ibid.107-108.

give

'life

annual and three

of his w r i t i n g s '

20.

pervades

a religious

This current

15.142-150.

R.G.Hamerton-Kelly, to a n a n a l y s i s

19. the

is w i d e l y

ibid.87,111.

13.

18.

observance.

to t h e C h r i s t i a n

and truly

to b e

15.153.

14.

mena

and religious

so that

reality

but appears

relation with G o d ' , i.e. the result

of ' r e l i g i o u s ' and 'religion'

times.

11.

is n o t d e f i n e d ,

inner

symbolic

type

To

of inter­

allegory', equivalency

a (!)

of e x i s t e n c e ( ! ) . '

22. The anti-anthropomorphic apology, the encomium, the reasoned allegory, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a l l e g o r y , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a t h e m e , t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the l i t e r a l m e a n i n g ; see i b i d . 8 1 - 8 7 . 23.

Ibid.99-100.

24. Ibid.103-104. I regret having given the impression (Runia 140n.167) that M a c k , b y ' b r a c k e t i n g ' t h e q u e s t i o n of p h i l o s o p h y , r e g a r d s it as u n i m p o r ­ tant f o r o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f P h i l o a n d t h e t r a d i t i o n o f A l e x a n d r i a n e x e g e s i s . H e is p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d in t h e m o v e from J e w i s h m o d e s o f t h o u g h t u n i n f l u ­ e n c e d b y H e l l e n i s t i c c o n c e p t u a l i t y to t h e k i n d of h i g h l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d thought found in P h i l o . N e v e r t h e l e s s I w o u l d w i s h to i n s i s t t h a t t h e b r a c k e ­ t i n g of p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n in P h i l o ' s w r i t i n g s c a n o n l y be d o n e o n t h e b a s i s of a s s u m p t i o n s o n t h e n a t u r e of h i s t h o u g h t (or t h a t o f h i s p r e ­ decessors) . It m i g h t w e l l b e t h e c a s e that t h e combination o f e x e g e s i s a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n is w h a t m a k e s H e l l e n i s t i c - J u d a i c t h o u g h t d i s ­ tinctive . 25.

Cf. B.L.Mack, Logos

hellenistischen logy

Judentum

and soteriology

SPh 3(1974-75)115.

27.

Some preliminary eruditionis

von Alexandrien'

1973);

in t h e H e l l e n i s t i c

26.

congressu

und Sophia: Untersuchungen (Gottingen

results

synagogue'

can be seen

gratia by B.L.Mack

SPh 5(1978)57-105.

zur Weisheitstheologie

'Imitatio M o s i s : Patterns

im

of c o s m o ­

SPh 1(1972)27-55.

in an analysis

in ' W e i s h e i t

of t h e t r e a t i s e D e

und Allegorie

bei Philo

456

NOTES TO

28. sion

Mack's

proposal

of t h e t h e s i s

in A l e x a n d r i a centrality

is in fact

of W . B o u s s e t

und Rom (Göttingen

o f exegetical

essentially

a compiler. identifiable

comparison

with

all, cism. there

But n o w , with is a g r o w i n g

Writer,

transmission

Biblical

in N T scholarship

depends

studies

the recent

emphasis

w h o , though using

that

is r e v e a l i n g swing

came

in s o m e

that the P h i l o is

of P h i l o ' s pure

r o l e is

o r at l e a s t

Hamerton-Kelly's

and somewhat

first,

o n t h e w a y that

source-material,

difference

this view

followed

quarters

ver­

Schulbetrieb

For Bousset

on a reasonably

of t r a d i t i o n s .

source-critism

and improved

the important

has been recognized.

Mack has perceived proposal

modernized

Jüdisch-christlicher

1915), with

traditions

inadequate, but h i s whole positively

a considerably in h i s s t u d y

a

explicit

disquieting.

After

by redaction

criti­

to s t r u c t u r a l

the gospels were

exegesis,

composed

b y one

is a n y t h i n g b u t a m e c h a n i c a l

com­

piler. 29.

D.M.Hay,

'Literalists 30.

ALGHJ

thesis Lille

'Philo's

11 ( L e i d e n

and defended in 1974.

in s u p p o r t

references

and literal

1977).

in J u n e

1970. A provisional

of h i s p r o p o s a l . commentary

Allegorists'

in P h i l o ' s w o r l d '

The work was submitted

It is t h i s v e r s i o n

in h i s e x c e l l e n t

to o t h e r

interpretation

that

is c i t e d

Nikiprowetzky's

(forthcoming).

to t h e S o r b o n n e

edition was published by Mack

views

o n t h e De D e c a l o g o

SPh 6(1979-80)41-75;

as a in

at S P h 3 ( 1 9 7 4 - 7 5 ) 7 3

can already be found

(FE 2 3 , P a r i s

in g e r m

1965).

31. T h i s is i n d e e d t h e t i t l e of t h e last c h a p t e r . N i k i p r o w e t z k y a c t u a l l y b e g a n h i s s t u d y as t h e first c h a p t e r of a w o r k o n t h e c o n c e p t of l i g h t in t h e S e p t u agint, P h i l o , Plato and the Greek t r a d i t i o n . But the question of method b e ­ c a m e so i m p o r t a n t that it d e v e l o p e d into a b o o k o n i t s o w n . 32.

Ibid.10-14

33.

Ibid.14-26.

34.

Ibid.40-44,50-81.

35. On the second-last page of the study (241) he asserts that V ö l k e r ' s work, d e s p i t e its i m p e r f e c t i o n s , p r e s e n t s a n i m a g e o f P h i l o w h i c h r e m a i n s m o s t f a i t h ­ ful to t h e t e x t s a n d that it u s h e r s in t h e t r u l y m o d e r n p e r i o d of P h i l o n i c r e ­ search. 36.

Ibid.97-108.

37.

Ibid.117-131,

38.

Ibid.159-162.

against

Heinemsnn,

Goodenough

and o t h e r s .

39. Ibid.170-180. O n e w o u l d like s o m e h a r d e v i d e n c e f o r this t h e o r y . Do we a c t u a l l y k n o w that t h e q u a e s t i o m e t h o d w a s u s e d in the S y n a g o g u e or is it d e ­ duced from Philo's works only? N i k i p r o w e t z k y argues further (192-202) that Philo only wrote two c o m m e n t a r i e s , the Quaestiones constituting the o n e , the e n t i r e c o m p l e x o f t h e A l l e g o r i c a l C o m m e n t a r y a n d t h e E x p o s i t i o n of t h e L a w the o t h e r . 40.

Ibid.181-184.

41.

Ibid.184.

42.

Ibid.184-192.

43.

Ibid.104,189,206.

44.

Cf. ibid.23-28,98-99,104-105,187-189,237.

45.

Cf. ibid.241.

46.

Ibid.236-241.

47.

J.Dillon,

(London

1977).

now Regius

The Middle At t h e t i m e

Professor

Platonists: A study of p u b l i c a t i o n

of Greek

at T r i n i t y

of P l a t o n i s m

Dillon

College,

taught Dublin.

8 0 B . C . to A . D . 2 2 0

at B e r k e l e y .

H e is

PAGES

48.

Ibid.139-183.

(1979)385 G.Luck

Some

(Witt), JHS

(AJP

of h i s

reviewers

99(1979)190

101(1980)376)

calls

12-17

457

were

surprised

(Blumenthal), CR

the chapter

too; cf. Gnomon

30(1980)57

on Philo

'one of

(Glucker); the b e s t

51 but

in

the

book'. 49.

Ibid.144-182.

50.

Ibid.141.

he

is t h i n k i n g

Dillon of t h e

gives

theory

no e v i d e n c e that

works, written before he

turned

of

exposed by

this

theory have been

dialogues

on his

quite 51.

to h i s

exegetical works'

190, Runia passim.

Dillon's lacks

I b i d . 143.

the f u r t h e r

See

full

52.

Ibid.140,145,182,418.

53.

Ibid.xiv-xv

54.

The order

and

of

the

'conversion'.

exegetical

A.Terian, SBL

book was

legitimately -

for

the p h i l o s o p h i c a l

One

are

foundations

of

(Missoula

suspects

youthful

The weak

implications

Papers

published

remarks

tasks.

'The

Seminar

scholarly

treatises

Philo's

1978)

in a s e m i - p o p u l a r

1.181-

series

and

-

documentation. on Middle

Platonism

below

at

I 4.

passim.

the divisions

of p h i l o s o p h y

was

a source

of d i s p u t e ,

prefers

the order L o g i c - E t h i c s - P h y s i c s

or P h y s i c s - E t h i c s - L o g i c ,

reasons

unexplained

in t h e o r d e r

presents

his

ideas

but

Philo

Dillon

Ethics-Physics-Logic;

for see

ibid.145. 55.

Cf.

ibid.184.

large number

of

those wishing causes

It

to r e g a r d

is p o s t u l a t e d :

well-defended (b) P h i l o ' s

is

interesting

inconsistencies Philo

as

(a) the

concern with

the

(c) r h e t o r i c a l

flourishes

ditions

(e) c h r o n o l o g i c a l

56.

(164);

text

reactions

(156);

how Dillon proved

Platonism

philosophical on which

he

(d) i n s u f f i c i e n t

A diversity to a b s o r b ,

traditions

texts

the

block

for

of for

(cf.n.53);

is c o m m e n t i n g ,

to d i f f e r e n t

development

deals with

a stumbling

philosopher.

of M i d d l e

from other

Biblical

to d i f f e r e n t

always

a systematic

tendency

reasons, elements

leads o c c a s i o n a l l y

to o b s e r v e

which have

which

(144,148,175);

absorption of

(173-174, clearly

confusing a last

tra­

resort).

Ibid.143.

57. D.Winston, P h i l o of A l e x a n d r i a : T h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e S e l e c t i o n s (New Y o r k 1 9 8 1 ) . A b r i e f p r e f a c e to t h e b o o k (xi-xiv).

life, The g i a n t s , and is s u p p l i e d by D i l l o n

58. Ibid•1-37. T h i s in l i e u of t h e f u l l - l e n g t h s t u d y o n P h i l o w h i c h W i n s t o n is p r e p a r i n g . C f . a l s o ' F r e e d o m and D e t e r m i n i s m in G r e e k p h i l o s o p h y a n d J e w ­ ish H e l l e n i s t i c W i s d o m ' S P h 2 ( 1 9 7 3 ) 4 0 - 5 0 ; ' F r e e d o m a n d D e t e r m i n i s m in P h i l o of A l e x a n d r i a ' SPh 3 ( 1 9 7 4 - 7 5 ) 4 7 - 7 0 ; T h e W i s d o m of S o l o m o n (New Y o r k 1 9 7 9 ) ( i n w h i c h it is a r g u e d t h a t t h e S a p i e n t i a S a l o m o n i s w a s p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n in 37-41 A . D . and m a y j u s t as e a s i l y h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by P h i l o ' s w o r k s as t h e o t h e r w a y a r o u n d , as is u s u a l l y a s s u m e d ) . In c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h D i l l o n , N i k i p r o w e t z k y and o t h e r s c h o l a r s W i n s t o n h a s p r e p a r e d a d e t a i l e d c o m m e n t a r y o n t w o P h i I o n i c t r e a t i s e s . It w i l l s o o n b e p u b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e t i t l e T w o t r e a t i s e s of P h i l o of A l e x a n d r i a : A c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e D e g i g a n t i b u s a n d Q u o d D e u s sit i m m u tabilis• (For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s s e e n o w t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y . ) 59.

Cf.

ibid.1,21.

sics of Western 60.

Ibid.1-7

The

anthology

appeared

as p a r t

of

the

series

The

Clas­

Spirituality. (I h a v e p a r a p h r a s e d

parts

of W i n s t o n ' s

excellent,

economical

prose). 61. what

Ibid.2.

Winston

misleading.

ically

different

62.

Ibid.2-3.

63.

Ibid.21.

refers

H i s v i e w of to t h a t

of

to N i k i p r o w e t z k y ' s the

role

the F r e n c h

of

study h e r e , but

scripture

scholar.

in P h i l o ' s

this

thought

is is

some­ rad­

458

NOTES

64.

Ibid.3, with reference

65.

Ibid.7-13.

66.

Cf.

67.

Ibid.13-17.

68.

Ibid.24-30.

69.

Ibid.35;

70.

Ibid.36.

austere exactly

The expression

Philo

and

opposite

in

71.

the

The

Spinoza.

to that

by

of

the D e i t y ,

is r e m a r k a b l e

reached

alludes

shared

by W o l f s o n , w h o

thought w h i c h had

Winston

puts

wetzky.

Cf. Goodenough

Nikiprowetzky

of

considered

centuries.

S.Sandmel

(JBL 8 1 ( 1 9 6 2 ) 1 - 1 3 )

these

revelation',

ideas

should

dominated

seventeen

forward

theory

made

By L i g h t , L i g h t

available

72-94,

and

all

to

the

v i e w by

the

reach a conclusion that

Spinoza

the h i s t o r y

to d e s c r i b e and

in a n u n p u b l i s h e d

kindly

above

in W i n s t o n ' s

that h e

p i l i n g up of p a r a l l e l s , e s p . b e t w e e n P h i l o

'Philo's

Notes

It

of P h i l o n i c

coined

'radical d i m e n s i o n s '

conception

intervening

term

criminate 72.

Dillon.

cf.30-35.

down the edifice sophy

and

ibid. x v i , 1 6 , n . 2 2 & 2 4 .

philosophical

two Jews

to T h e i l e r

TO

the

Rabbinic

the w h o l l y

tore philo-

indes-

writings.

manuscript

to m e by

of

entitled

Prof.Nikiproopposite

view

of

117-131.

I2.3.

1. E s p e c i a l l y p r a i s e w o r t h y a r e the c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t s to g i v e a c c e s s to t h e w h o l e of P h i l o ' s w r i t i n g s . C f . in the last d e c a d e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f : F. P e t i t , L ' a n c i e n n e v e r s i o n l a t i n e d e s Q u e s t i o n s sur la G e n è s e d e P h i l o n d ' A l e x a n d r i e 2 v o l s . T U 1 1 3 - 1 1 4 ( B e r l i n 1 9 7 3 ) ; e a d e m , Q u a e s t i o n e s in G e n e s i m et in E x o d u m : F r a g m e n t a G r a e c a in L e s O e u v r e s d e P h i l o n d ' A l e x a n d r i e v o l . 3 3 ( P a r i s 1 9 7 8 ) ; G . M a y e r , Index Philoneus (Berlin 1974)(unfortunately not w h o l l y comp l e t e ) ; C . M e r c i e r , Q u a e s t i o n e s et s o l u t i o n e s in G e n e s i m I-II in L e s O e u v r e s de P h i l o n d ' A l e x a n d r i e v o l . 3 4 A ( P a r i s 1 9 7 8 ) ( t r a n s l a t i o n d i r e c t f r o m the A r m e n i a n ) ; F . S i e g e r t , D r e i h e l l e n i s t i s c h - j ü d i s c h e P r e d i g t e n ( T ü b i n g e n 1 9 8 0 ) ( t r a n s l a t i o n of the f r a g m e n t D e D e o d i r e c t f r o m the A r m e n i a n ) ; A . T e r i a n , P h i l o n i s A l e x a n d r i n i D e a n i m a l i b u s ( C h i c o 1 9 8 1 ) ( t r a n s l a t i o n d i r e c t f r o m the A r m e n i a n ) . J.R.Royse is p r e p a r i n g a n e d i t i o n of the F r a g m e n t s of P h i l o (cf. SPh 5 ( 1 9 7 8 ) 1 3 8 ) . I h a v e not yet seen B i b l i a P a t r i s t i c a : Supplément Philon d ' A l e x a n d r i e (Paris 1 9 8 2 ) ( a n e x h a u s t i v e i n d e x of t h e B i b l i c a l c i t a t i o n s in all P h i l o ' s w o r k s ) .

Notes 1.

I 2.4. Hist.Eccl.2.4.2.

lected

at C - W

YopEtos

of

Philonic

scholarship

testimonia

Clement

tradition.

De vir.inl.11

interpretation

3.

Photius

(cf. C-W

because,

of p h i l o s o p h y , A brief

but

are

twice

conveniently calls

according

to

the Pythagorean

highly

from a n c i e n t

is g i v e n by B i l l i n g s

2.

on Philo

of A l e x a n d r i a

presumably

v e r s i o n of t h e h i s t o r y

the Platonic

history dern

ancient

(Str.1.72.4, 2.100.3),

Platonist cludes

The

1.lxxxxv-cxiii.

informative

times

Philo the

col-

o

HuSa-

Middle

tradition account

of

to the b e g i n n i n g s

of

inthe mo-

1-7.

l.ciii). i

pounding

Cod.105

the doctrine

(cf. C - W of

the

1.cx)

Theodorus Metochita Miscell.16

5.

Diss. Leipzig Billings

disinterested

1693; reprinted

6 regards

this

investigation'

Philo

as g o i n g

astray

by

pro-

ideas.

4.

160.

describes

study

(cf. C - W

l.cxii).

in O p u s c u l o r u m as

initiating

in P h i l o n i c

Sylloge

(Hamburg

the f i n a l p e r i o d

scholarship.

What

1738) of

he means

147-

'free, is

that

PAGES

Christian

dogmatic

jectivity

certainly must

rested

controversies

scholarship'

is a

Op.cit.VII

7.

Ibid.IX

p . 155.

8.

Already

in t h e f i r s t

see, used 9.

editions is

recognized

Die Philosopie 1923 )

than

text

Zeller's

1896 is

the study of a

of P h i l o . 'free,

Ob-

disinte-

in i h r e r

of P h i l o ' s w o r k s

(Paris

in A e t . a n d , as w e

geschichtlichen

was altered

The account

of t h e f o u r t h

edition

the Timaeus

shall

them.

account

work.

complete from

to e m e n d

der Griechen

385-467. a reprint

reasonably the quotes

of h i s m o n u m e n t a l

simply

dominate

f o r , but the n o t i o n

p.154.

the Platonic

5

zig

longer

459

delusion.

6.

1552) Turnebus

no

be striven

17-22

edition

Entwicklung

in t h e c o u r s e

in t h e f i f t h

(1903),

and f i n a l

and in it n o

(Leip-

of t h e v a r i o u s edition

literature

later

cited.

10. Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt 6 v o l s . (Berlin 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 1 5 ) . T h e r e f e r e n c e s to t h e T i m a e u s a r e c o l l e c t e d in t h e I n d e x ( v o l . 7 B e r l i n 1 9 2 6 1930) 1 9 - 2 0 , c o m p i l e d b y J . L e i s e g a n g . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h e T i m a e u s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d in t h e G e r m a n T r a n s l a t i o n ( C o h n , H e i n e m a n n et a l i i ) , E n g l i s h E d i t i o n ( C o l s o n and W h i t a k e r ) and F r e n c h E d i t i o n ( A r n a l d e z et a l i i ) . 11.

Das platonische

Marburg über

1900).

Philons und Piatons

12.

2

13.

3

of P h i l o

Die Anthropologie also

supplementary

et r e l i g i e u s e s is l o c a t e d

Judaeus

Philons

von Alexandreia über

in

Nonios

(diss.

Untersuchungen

(Marburg

in t h e

(diss. Chicago

Anschauungen

Kóauos

essays

1900).

de Philon d'Alexandrie

at 7 8 n . 2

t h e less v a l u a b l e b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s

Philons von Alexandreia

(Paris

1950 e d i t i o n .

1919).

(diss. Leipzig, Würzburg

solid

dissertation

die Natur

of

des M e n s c h e n

1933).

J.Gross, (diss.

Tübin-

1930).

15.

Philo: Foundations

Islam ted

und der p h i l o n i s c h e

some

Lehre v o n der W e l t s c h ö p f u n g

T h e list

The Platonism

14.

gen

ZSov

with

Les idées philosophiques

1908, 1925 , 1950 ) .

Cf.

NoriTÔv

Reprinted

2 vols.

at

16. first

of r e l i g i o u s

(Cambr.Mass.

philosophy

2

1947, 1962 ) .

in J u d a i s m ,

References

Christianity

to t h e T i m a e u s

are

and

collec-

2.483-484. 'Études P h i l o n i e n n e s ' REG 7 6 ( 1 9 6 3 ) 6 4 - 1 1 0 v o l u m e s of t h e F r e n c h E d i t i o n ) .

(it b e g i n s

as a c r i t i q u e

of t h e

17. 'Philo u n d d e r B e g i n n d e r k a i s e r z e i t l i c h e n P i a t o n i s m u s ' P a r o u s i a : F e s t g a b e für J . H i r s c h b e r g e r ( F r a n k f u r t 1 9 6 5 ) 1 9 9 - 2 1 8 , r e p r i n t e d in U n t e r s u c h u n g e n z u r a n t i k e n L i t e r a t u r ( B e r l i n 1 9 7 0 ) 4 8 4 - 5 0 1 ; 'Philo v o n A l e x a n d r i a u n d d e r h e l l e n i s i e r t e T i m a e u s ' P h i l o m a t h e s : s t u d i e s . • . i n m e m o r y of P h i l i p M e r l a n (The H a g u e 1 9 7 1 ) 2 7 - 3 5 , r e p r i n t e d in C . Z i n t z e n ( e d . ) , D e r M i t t e l p l a t o n r s m u s W e g e der F o r s c h u n g 70 (Darmstadt 1981) 5 2 - 6 3 . A l r e a d y in h i s w e l l - k n o w n s t u d y , D i e V o r b e r e i t u n g der N e u p l a t o n i s m u s (Berlin 1930) Theiler m a d e important comments o n P h i l o and t h e P l a t o n i c t r a d i t i o n . T h e ' S a c h w e i s e r ' w h i c h h e c o m p i l e d for the G e r m a n T r a n s l a t i o n ( 7 . 3 8 6 - 4 1 1 ) is a l s o m o s t u s e f u l . 18.

'Problèmes

du récit

d e la c r é a t i o n

(1965)271-306: Le commentaire see a b o v e 19.

Die

Philon d'Alexandrie'

chez Philon

R E J 124

d'Alexandrie,

on which

2.2.c.

Untersuchungen

Judentums 20.

I

chez

de l'écriture

T U 97

zur K o s m o l o g i e

(Berlin

kosmologischen

(Leiden

1968).

21.

Cf. Mack

22.

Kosmos

des h e l l e n i s t i s c h e n

Vorstellungen

bei Philo

SPh 3 ( 1 9 7 4 - 7 5 ) 1 0 4 , N i k i p r o w e t z k y

und Logos

und

palästinischen

1966). von Alexandrien

ALGHJ

168.

nach Philon von Alexandria

(Amsterdam

1976).

2

460

NOTES

23.

Die Weltentstehung

Philosophia Antiqua 24.

See above

25.

'Filone

della

I 2.2.d&e

creazione' (Milan

is g i v e n by

26.

dell'etä

27.

(Berlin

Notes 1.

I

politeia: but

elaborazione

rather

traditional

in h i s

imperiale

(Milan

1978)

in o n o r e account

Storia della

Interpreten

della di

of

dottrina

Guiseppe Philo's

filosofía

antica

vol.4

247-306.

aus dem N i c h t s : Die E n t s t e h u n g

'Philo's

filosófica

studi patristici

author

esp.

den antiken

esp.n.45&56.

e la p r i m a

solid

nach

der Lehre von der

creatio

ex

9-20. De

aeternitate

mundi:

the p r o b l e m

of

its

interpreta­

35(1981)105-151.

3.

On

(Oxford

A

Timaios

1976).

the s a m e

1978),

D.T.Runia,

tion' VChr

its

1979).

Schöpfung

nihilo

and

Paradoxos

thought

scuole

des platonischen

(Leiden

di A l e s s a n d r i a

Lazzati Le

30

TO

the

city

1972).

information

a decade

or

of A l e x a n d r i a

see P . M . F r a s e r ,

This w o r k does not can be

so a f t e r

aim

extrapolated

the e n d

of

to c o v e r

to t h e

Ptolemaic

period

the P t o l e m a i c

Alexandria

Roman Alexandria, of

3 vols.

but

Philo, who was

much

born

of

only

period.

2. O n the h i s t o r y of t h e J e w i s h c o m m u n i t y in A l e x a n d r i a c f . e s p . the m a g i s ­ t e r i a l P r o l e g o m e n a by V . A . T c h e r i k o v e r to the C o r p u s P a p y r o r u m J u d a i c a r u m 3 v o l s . ( C a m b r . M a s s . 1 9 5 7 - 1 9 6 4 ) ; a l s o L . H . F e l d m a n , 'The o r t h o d o x y of the J e w s in Hellenistic Egypt' Jewish Social Scudies 20(1960)215-237; Sandmel 5-14; M . H e n g e l , J e w s , G r e e k s and B a r b a r i a n s ( E n g . t r a n s . L o n d o n 1980) 8 7 - 1 0 3 . 3. T h i s at l e a s t m u s t b e c o n c e d e d to t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l s t u d y of M . H e n g e l , J u d a i s m and H e l l e n i s m 2 v o l s ( E n g . t r a n s . L o n d o n 1 9 7 4 ) . But h i s c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t 'even P a l e s t i n i a n J u d a i s m m u s t be r e g a r d e d as H e l l e n i s t i c J u d a i s m ' ( 2 5 2 ) , and that 'the m a n i f e s t a d o p t i o n of p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a s in A l e x a n d r i a . . . s i m p l y r e p r e s e n t s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h w e r e a l r e a d y at w o r k in P a l e s ­ t i n e , a l b e i t in a less m a r k e d f o r m ' ( 3 1 0 ) s e e m to m e e x a g g e r a t e d a n d p o t e n t i a l ­ ly m i s l e a d i n g . 4. C f . T c h e r i k o v e r o p . cit•31 ; A . M o m i g l i a n o , A l i e n w i s d o m ( C a m b r i d g e 1 9 7 5 ) 90-92. O n the n a t u r e of the L X X as a t r a n s l a t i o n and the a m o u n t of G r e e k i n ­ f l u e n c e w h i c h it c o n t a i n s c f . R . M a r c u s , ' J e w i s h a n d G r e e k e l e m e n t s in the S e p t u a g i n t ' L o u i s G i n z b e r g J u b i l e e V o l u m e (New Y o r k 1 9 4 5 ) 2 2 7 - 2 4 5 ; F e l d m a n art. c i t . 2 1 6 - 2 1 7 ; E . B i c k e r m a n , 'The S e p t u a g i n t as a t r a n s l a t i o n ' r e p r . in S t u d i e s in J e w i s h and C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y ( L e i d e n 1 9 7 6 ) 1 . 1 6 7 - 2 0 0 ; H e n g e l J e w s , G r e e k s and B a r b a r i a n s 9 5 - 9 6 . 5.

Mos•2.38-40.

Letter 6.

of A r i s t e a s

The

Cf. Tcherikover

7.

See

8.

Well

7tau6eba

above

I

account

of

the

is a f u n d a m e n t a l

translation

document

of

the

Septuagint

of A l e x a n d r i a n

in

the

Judaism.

op.cit•36•

2.2.b.

emphasized

by

Tcherikover

in t h e H e l l e n i s t i c

world,

but

op.cit•38-42. it did

not

One became

necessarily

a Greek

entail

through

full

citi­

zenship. 9. O n the c e n t r a l r o l e of the g y m n a s i u m in the H e l l e n i s t i c c i t y c f . H . I . M a r r o u , A h i s t o r y of e d u c a t i o n in a n t i q u i t y ( E n g . t r a n s . L o n d o n 1 9 5 6 ) 1 0 2 - 1 1 5 ; H e n g e l J u d a i s m and H e l l e n i s m 6 5 - 7 0 . T h e g y m n a s i u m w a s l i k e a c r o s s b e t w e e n an E n g l i s h P u b l i c s c h o o l and a s p o r t i n g c l u b , w i t h the s a m e snob a p p e a l and ' j o b networks ' . 10.

Cf. Tcherikover

op.cit.38.

PAGES

11.

Wolfson

1.78-81.

by A . M e n d e l s o n , 12.

See Feldman

'A r e a p p r a i s a l

Cf. Nikiprowetzky

461

22-26

art.cit.224-227

of W o l f s o n ' s

method'

and

the d e t a i l e d

SPh

3(1974-75)11-26.

critique

178.

13. Cf. Feldman art.cit•228-230. W o l f s o n 1 . 7 3 - 8 7 , o n t h e b a s i s of P h i l o ' s e v i d e n c e , d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n t h r e e g r o u p s of a p o s t a t e s : t h e l o v e r s of l u x u ry a n d the f l e s h ; the s o c i a l l y a m b i t i o u s ; t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y u p r o o t e d o r f r e e thinkers. But F e l d m a n 2 3 0 r i g h t l y r e m a r k s t h a t n o n - o b s e r v a n c e w i l l h a v e b e e n much more common than actual apostasy. 14.

On Hellenistic-Jewish

Volkes mann,

im Z e i t a l t e r

'Griechisch-jüdisches

Literatur 15.

und

Religion

Cf. Momigliano

Jews were with

the only

See o n c e

17.

Cf. H.I.Bell,

sche

Skizze

18.

des

On Philo's by F o s t e r

of

the world

and

Tcherikover

of

des

(Würzburg

and

J.Schreiner

1973)

Judaism into

jüdischen H.Heger-

(edd.),

163-180. and H e l l e n i s m

a deliberate

1 0 0 , "The

competition

history'.

op.cit • passim. im r ö m i s c h e n A l e x a n d r e i a :

Antisemitismus

cf. J.Schwarz,

Isidore Levy

Geschichte

1909") 3.420-716;

in J . M a i e r

to e n t e r

Juden und G r i e c h e n

family

(Leipzig

92-93; Hengel

the East

alexandrinischen

xandrie' Mélanges rected

Schrifttum'

op.cit.(n.4)

people

again

cf. E.Schürer,

3 vols.

des Frühjudentums

t h e G r e e k v i e w of

16.

literature

Jesu Christi

'Note

(Brüssel

sur

(Leipzig

la f a m i l l e

de P h i l o n

1953) 5 9 1 - 6 2 0 , queried

SPh 4 ( 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 ) 2 5 - 3 2 ; Terian

eine

histori-

1926).

and

d'Ale-

partly

cor-

25-28.

19. A n ( i n c o m p l e t e ) list at C h a d w i c k 1 3 9 . Terian 55-56 notes with justific a t i o n t h a t s o m e of t h e s e a c c o u n t s in the f i r s t p e r s o n m a y w e l l b e l i t e r a r y fiction. A foremost authority on Greek athletics, however, has made a most i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y of P h i l o ' s a t h l e t i c m e t a p h o r s a n d d e s c r i p t i o n s ; s e e H . A . H a r r i s , G r e e k a t h l e t i c s and t h e J e w s ( C a r d i f f 1 9 7 6 ) 5 1 - 9 1 . To h i s g r e a t s u r p r i s e h e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t ' t h e r e is n o o t h e r w r i t e r in G r e e k w h o so o f t e n and so v i v i d l y c o n j u r e s up b e f o r e h i s r e a d e r ' s e y e s a p i c t u r e o f w h a t w e n t o n in a s p o r t s s t a d i u m at t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a ' ( 1 3 ) , a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t P h i l o w a s not o n l y a s p e c t a t o r , but h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d h i m s e l f and p a s s e d t h r o u g h the h a n d s of t r a i n e r s as a p u p i l (72) ! If t r u e t h i s m u s t h a v e o c c u r r e d in t h e gymnasium. 20. ready 21.

Officially earlier.

by

the

Philo m e n t i o n s

emperor

the

22.

Cf. Mos.1.21-24.

23.

Cf. F.H.Colson,

Claudius

gymnasium

'Philo o n

at

in 41 A . D . , b u t

Somn.1.69,

de

facto probably

Spec.2.230,

al-

Prov.2.100.

education' JThS 18(1917)151-162.

24. See e s p . t h e e x c e l l e n t s t u d i e s b y M . A l e x a n d r e at F E 1 6 . 2 7 - 4 7 a n d culture profane chez P h i l o n ' PAL 105-129; also A . M e n d e l s o n , Encyclical t i o n in P h i l o of A l e x a n d r i a ( u n p u b l . d i s s . C h i c a g o 1 9 7 1 ) .

'La educa-

25. The point w h i c h F e s t u g i è r e sided and d e p r e c a t o r y m a n n e r .

one-

26.

The

notes 27. and 28.

Colson, Alexandre

deal with

See t h e some

chapter

further

this

below

(xiii)

to m a k e , b u t

and M e n d e l s o n

in a n u n a c c e p t a b l e

cited

in t h e

previous

subject.

on Alexandrian

remarks

In t h e p r e f a c e

Winston 29.

s t u d i e s by

do n o t

tried

in

I

philosophy

in F r a s e r

op.cit.(n.1)

480-494

4.d.

to W i n s t o n ' s

anthology;

cf.

also D i l l o n

140-141,

3.

On private

Roman world

tutors

cf. Glucker

in p h i l o s o p h y 133.

(called

Madn-ynTcn!) in t h e

Hellenistic-

462

NOTES TO

30.

Sandmel

31.

On Alexander

14,47. and his brilliant

political

career

cf. E . G . T u r n e r ,

'Tiberius

Julius Alexander' JRS 44(1954)54-64. 32. O f t e n in P h i l o ' s w r i t i n g s h e i n t r o d u c e s a s p e c t s of J u d a i s m in a w a y that g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n that h e h a s n o n - J e w i s h r e a d e r s i n m i n d (a p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e e x a m p l e at A e t . 1 9 ) . T h e p r o b l e m w a s t h a t , as M o m i g l i a n o o p . c i t . ( n . 4 ) 9 1 92 p o i n t s o u t , Greek i n t e l l e c t u a l s took n o n o t i c e of t h e translated B i b l e , for it w a s b a d G r e e k . T h e y w e r e o n l y i n t e r e s t e d in t h e J e w s o n t h e i r o w n t e r m s , i . e . in t h e e t h n o g r a p h y of a H e c a t a e u s o r a P o s i d o n i u s . T h e S e p t u a g i n t is f i r s t q u o t e d in e x t a n t G r e e k l i t e r a t u r e b y t h e a u t h o r o f t h e Jlepu lupous, p r o ­ b a b l y in t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y A . D .

33.

Cf. once again

NOTES 1.

the remarks

(Münster) has announced

of t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n

2.

Cf. H.Cherniss,

3.

T h e list

the problems Plato's tion

op.cit.75-78•

I4. Prof.M.Baltes

the history

not

of Tcherikover

The riddle

is s i m i l a r

raised

immediate

h e is p r e p a r i n g u p to P l o t i n u s .

of t h e e a r l y A c a d e m y

to t h e o n e c o m p i l e d

in later

Platonism

successors.

of i m m a t e r i a l a hot topic

that

of t h e T i m a e u s

triangles

in M i d d l e

than

by Dillon

the problem

solid

1945) 60-75.

6 - 7 , b u t l o o k s m o r e to

those discussed

For example, can create

(Berkeley

a study on

i n t h e c i r c l e of

of h o w 'any c o m b i n a ­

substance'

(Dillon's

fifth) w a s

Platonism.

4. Other important p a s s a g e s in the d i a l o g u e s w h i c h h a v e a significant b e a ­ r i n g o n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e T i m a e u s a r e : P h d . 9 6 - 9 9 ( S o c r a t e s ' a u t o b i o ­ g r a p h y ) ; R e p . 3 7 9 - 3 8 3 (the T U not. K e p t a e o X o y u x s ) , 5 9 7 ( t h e i d e a of t h e b e d ) ; P h d r . 2 4 5 (the i m m o r t a l i t y o f t h e s o u l ) , 2 4 6 - 2 5 0 (the e s c h a t o l o g y of t h e m y t h ) ; S o p h . 2 4 8 - 2 4 9 (the features of the naVTeAös o v ) , 254-256 (the five u e v o a x a ycv n ) ; P o l . 2 6 9 - 2 7 4 (the m y t h of t h e t w o c o s m i c r e v o l u t i o n s ) ; P h i l . 2 4 - 3 0 (the f o u r - f o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) ; L a w s 8 9 6 (the t w o s o u l s ) . 5.

Dillon

6.

Tim.29b-d

6.

7.

Cf. E.N.Tigerstedt,

etc.; 28c; 48c,53d. Interpreting

Plato

(Stockholm

1977)

99.

8. T i m . 3 5 a - c , S o p h . 2 5 4 - 2 5 6 ; c f . C o r n f o r d 6 1 , 'the t e r m s E x i s t e n c e , S a m e n e s s , D i f f e r e n c e , w o u l d s i m p l y b e u n i n t e l l i g i b l e to a n y o n e w h o h a d n o t r e a d a n d u n ­ derstood the Sophist' (Tigerstedt did not take this example into a c c o u n t ) . 9.

In general

there a r e in recent

terpretation with view, which works that

argues

and generally philosophy certain

cluding

the rather

in h i s c a r e e r also

mer, Gaiser). systematic

Scepticism he

goes

10.

of e m p h a s i s

radical

changes

doctrines

In m y v i e w cited

approach

above

philosophy

Ln t h e U n w r i t t e n

there

can be drawn can be used

doctrines

the clue

to P l a t o ' s

thought.

He considers

the Charybdis

the maieutic,

developed

philosophy

that

aspect

Plato's which late

maintains and can be

e s p . by K r a ­

to t h e t r u t h .

against

The

an excessive­

t h e S c y l l a of

of D o g m a t i s m .

aporetic

view,

view, which

is c l o s e s t antidote

from

thought, in­

school, represented view

of i n ­

unitarian

to r e c o n s t r u c t

in P l a t o ' s

t h e esotericist

is a n e x c e l l e n t

than

lines

(1) t h e

(2) t h e developmental

(the T ü b i n g e n

to P l a t o ' s

dangerous

three

thought:

the dialogues

the developmental

t o o f a r in s t r e s s i n g that

scholarship

and d e v e l o p m e n t s

provide

in the d i a l o g u e s

is less

But note

coierent

t h a t only

(De V o g e l , R o s s , G u t h r i e ) ;

study of Tigerstedt ly

a single

assumes

changes

the Unwritten

detected

that

Platonic

to t h e u n i t y o f P l a t o ' s

(Cherniss, Tarän, Brisson);

accepts

that

regard

But to my mind

of t h e d i a l o g u e s .

is a c h a n g e of e m p h a s i s , n o t a c h a n g e

of mind

invol-

PAGES

ved,

as C h e r n i s s

210);

successfully

cf. also G u t h r i e

argued

26-30

against

463

Festugière

(Gnomon

22(1950)206-

4.47,5.252.

11. This n e g a t i v e conclusion was demonstrated by Cherniss and, closely f o l l o w i n g h i m , L . B r i s s o n , L e m ê m e et l ' a u t r e d a n s la s t r u c t u r e o n t o l o g i q u e d u T i m é e d e P l a t o n (Paris 1 9 7 4 ) . But their p o s i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a coherent P l a t o n i c s y s t e m is less p e r s u a s i v e . A r e a d i n g of t h e T i m a e u s in t e r m s of t h e t w o p r i n c i p l e s d o c t r i n e c a n b e f o u n d in K . G a i s e r , P l a t o n s u n g e s c h r i e b e n e L e h r e (Stuttgart 1963). S e e a l s o t h e r e m a r k s o n t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e r e c e p t a c l e ( T i m . ) and t h e a n e t p o v ( P h i l . ) b y C . J . D e V o g e l , T h e o r i a ( A s s e n 1 9 6 7 ) 196. 12.

Tim.27d-28a,51b-52c.

13. T h o u g h t h e r e a r e a n t e c e d e n t s o f t h e d e m i u r g e in o t h e r P l a t o n i c c f . W . D . R o s s , P l a t o ' s t h e o r y of I d e a s ( L o n d o n 1 9 5 1 ) 4 4 , 1 2 7 .

dialogues;

14. C f . R . H a c k f o r t h , 'Plato's theism' CQ 3 0 ( 1 9 3 6 ) 4 - 9 , B r i s s o n 7 6 - 8 4 . Note a l s o D e V o g e l , P h i l o s o p h i a I ( A s s e n 1 9 7 0 ) 2 2 9 : 'He i s , so to s p e a k , t h e i n t e l l i g i b l e o r d e r t u r n e d t o w a r d s c r e a t i o n and p e r s o n i f i e d i n t o a c r e a t i n g G o d and F a t h e r . ' I find t h i s a t t r a c t i v e , e v e n if it r a i s e s as m a n y q u e s t i o n s as it solves. It is o f t e n said o n t h e b a s i s of t e x t s s u c h as T i m . 3 0 b and P h i l . 3 0 c that v o u s c a n n o t e x i s t w i t h o u t i t u x n , so that t h e d e m i u r g e m u s t b e t h e v o u s o f the cosmic soul. B u t w h a t P l a t o m e a n s in t h e s e t e x t s is t h a t t h e v o u s cannot exist in body w i t h o u t s o u l , w h i c h is s o m e t h i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . 15. Brisson 208-220 shows spatial', has both a spatial 16.

Cf. L.Tarân,

Kustas 17. the 18. the

(edd.), These

When adverb

'The c r e a t i o n m y t h

Essays

are best

last w o r d

t h a t t h e r e c e p t a c l e , w h i c h h e c a l l s 'le m i l i e u ( é v $ ) and a c o n s t i t u t i v e (èç o 5 ) e l e m e n t .

in A n c i e n t

in P l a t o ' s

Greek

Timaeus'

philosophy

set out in t h e s t u d y

in J . P . A n t o n

(Albany

of B r i s s o n ,

and G.L.

1972) 372-409.

even

if h e h a s n o t

said

on the subject.

in T i m . 5 2 c 4 expresses

the e ù x û v

a measure

is d e s c r i b e d

of

a s o ù a u c i s àucoo-yÉTioos

àvTEXouévnv,

discomfort.

19. The collection of fragments by P.Lang, D e Speusippi A c a d e m i c i scriptis (diss. B o n n 1911) has n o w b e e n s u p e r s e d e d by two n e w e d i t i o n s : M . I s n a r d i P a r e n t e , Speusippo frammenti (Naples 1 9 8 0 ) ; L . T a r â n , Speusippus of A t h e n s : a c r i t i c a l s t u d y w i t h a c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t e d t e x t s and c o m m e n t a r y P h i l o s o p h i a A n t i g u a 39 ( L e i d e n 1 9 8 2 ) . The secondary literature cannot be adequately surveyed here. T h e m o n u m e n t a l s t u d y of T a r â n w i l l c e r t a i n l y g i v e f r e s h i m p u l s e s to t h e s t u d y of t h e O l d A c a d e m y . I g a i n e d a c c e s s to it t o o l a t e t o i n c o r p o r a t e its f i n d i n g s in t h i s s u r v e y . 20. It is s t i l l n e c e s s a r y to u s e t h e d a t e d c o l l e c t i o n of R . H e i n z e , X e n o c r a t e s : Darstellung der Lehre und Sammlung der Fragmente (Leipzig 1 8 9 2 ) . 21.

C f . H . D o r r i e , A r t . ' X e n o c r a t e s ' R E II 18 1 5 1 8 .

22. Cf. Speusippus 15,23-25,33-34,68. 23.

See below n . 3 8 .

24.

Speusippus

numbers.

the ideas

equates

Cf. fr.89

principles with

26.

Fr.15. Fr.23-25; cf. Dillon

28.

Plut.Mor.1012D-F

28,54,58,72

and assigns

idea-numbers. the late

Isnardi, 58 T a r â n .

27.

Isnardi,

their

30-32.

(=fr.68).

T a r â n ; X e n o c r a t e s fr.

function

the ideas w i t h m a t h e m a t i c a l

the late P l a t o n i c

of t h e t w o f i r s t 25.

rejects

Xenocrates

ther espouse

fr.36,89,96,122

The affinity

Plato

is

to

mathematical

numbers.

evident.

of t h e i r

Thus

nei-

doctrine

NOTES

464

29.

Cherniss

op.cit.(n.2)

der Geistmetaphysik 30.

See L . T a r â n ,

Epinomis

45-47;

(Amsterdam Academica:

(Philadelphia

TO

Brisscm

292-295.

H.J.Krämer,

1964) 328 u n s u c c e s s f u l l y Plato, Philip

1975) 3 - 1 5 4 .

defends

of O p u s , and

Philip

belonged

the

to the

Der

Ursprung

Xenocrates.

pseudo-Platonic generation

of

Speusippus. 31 .

See below

32.

Procl.in

33.

But

on

n.51. Tim.1.76.2.

the d i f f i c u l t y

of d e t e r m i n i n g

what

constitutes

a commentary

see

below (g). 34. O n A t l a n t i s ( P r o c l • l o c . c i t • ) , the p r o b l e m of Y E V E O L S P r o c l . i n T i m . 1 . 2 7 7 . 8 - 1 0 ; c f . B a l t e s 8 3 - 9 5 ) , the psychogony

(Plut.Mor.1013A, (Plut.Mor.1012Fff.).

35. T h e y h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d in a m o n o g r a p h by G . S . C l a g h o r n , A r i s t o t l e ' s c r i ­ t i c i s m of P l a t o ' s T i m a e u s (The H a g u e 1 9 5 4 ) . T h i s s t u d y s u f f e r s f r o m the s t r o n g t e n d e n c y to r e c o n c i l e t h e t h o u g h t of t h e t w o p h i l o s o p h e r s (cf. I . D ü r i n g G n o m o n 27(1955)155). M u c h m o r e c r i t i c a l are H . C h e r n i s s is h i s g r e a t (but u n f i n i s h e d ) w o r k , A r i s t o t l e ' s c r i t i c i s m of P l a t o a n d the A c a d e m y ( B a l t i m o r e 1 9 4 4 ) ( c f . a l s o T h e r i d d l e of t h e e a r l y A c a d e m y 1 6 - 3 0 ) , B r i s s o n p a s s i m . 36.

Cf. W.Jaeger, Aristoteles

Divina 37.

(Assen The

1976)

chief

texts

16-26, Phys.8.1

2

(Berlin

1955 )

125-170; A.P.Bos,

Providentia

21-27. are: De phil.fr•18-20

251b17-28, Met.A

38. D e C a e l o 1.10 cf. Baltes 18-22.

6

Ross, De Caelo

1.10-12,

3.2

300b

1071b33-1072a5.

279b32-280a11 .

The

crucial

is OLOaaxciAtcig

phrase

xâpi-v;

39. H e r e a j u d g m e n t m u s t b e m a d e o n A r i s t o t l e ' s v a l u e and i n t e g r i t y as a h i s t o r i a n of p h i l o s o p h y . C o m p a r e the h a r s h l y c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of C h e r n i s s in A r i s t o t l e ' s c r i t i c i s m of P r e s o c r a t i c p h i l o s o p h y ( B a l t i m o r e 1 9 3 5 ) a n d in t h e w o r k s c i t e d in n . 3 5 , and the d e f e n c e by W . K . C . G u t h r i e , ' A r i s t o t l e as a h i s t o ­ r i a n of p h i l o s o p h y : s o m e p r e l i m i n a r i e s ' J H S 7 7 ( 1 9 5 7 ) 3 5 - 4 1 , w h i c h v i e w p o i n t h e p u t into p r a c t i c e in h i s A h i s t o r y of G r e e k p h i l o s o p h y 6 v o l s ( C a m b r i d g e 1 9 6 2 — 1981). A r i s t o t l e ' s w i t n e s s is s t i l l s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d in to s u p p o r t a l i t e r a l r e a d i n g of t h e T i m a e u s . C f . G . V l a s t o s CQ 3 3 ( 1 9 3 9 ) 7 4 : 'If w e are to d i s c o u n t Aristotle's testimony we must charge him w i t h deliberate m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . It is h a r d to b e l i e v e t h a t A r i s t o t L e , w i t h a l l t h e l i m i t a t i o n s a n d u n i m a g i n a t i v e m i n d , w a s c a p a b l e of q u i t e t h a t . ' 40.

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By Dave Hood

“The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you’ll go.”—Dr.Seuss, “I Can Read With My Eyes Shut!”

Unfortunately, many people stop learning once they graduate from high school, college, or university. They never read a book or learn another useful Dissertation Phd Comics Gravitational Waves again. I believe that everyone should be lifelong learners. It makes for a more interesting and enjoyable life. Furthermore, it enhances well-being. What is lifelong learning? It is self-motivated, voluntary, and continuous learning throughout one’s life—an ongoing quest for Lifelong Learning Essays and skills, whether or not a person is in an educational setting.

How does a Lifelong Learning Essays embrace lifelong learning? You don’t achieve it by watching reruns of sitcoms or reality television, such as The Bachelor. Travel can be a good method, providing you don’t see Lifelong Learning Essays sights by bus or spend your time in a five-star hotel next to the pool. You learn by immersion in new people, new culture, new places, new experiences, education, new types of work, where you acquire new skills and expand your knowledge Lifelong Learning Essays polish your expertise. Instead of becoming like moldy loaf of bread that sits on the counter, you learn. What follows is what I consider easy and powerful methods for lifelong learning.

My Approach to Learning
It’s to feel overwhelmed with information overload. Every day, newspapers report on the news and magazine publications, such as The Atlantic or The New Yorker, which Lifelong Learning Essays poetry, fiction, and creative nonfiction essays. Every business has a web presence, where they promote and sell their products and services. Everyone can use their smartphones to take photos and publish them on the Web for the world to see. I know that countless books are published each year. We are continually being bombarded with new information. For instance, in Canada, 20,000 new books are published every year. It is not humanly possible to stay informed about all the discoveries, new inventions, innovations, new movies, plays, music added to popular culture. So what is a person to do? Rather than Lifelong Learning Essays or read or follow everything in the media or on Lifelong Learning Essays Internet, I focus my time and attention on learning things related to my passions and interests.

Learning in an Educational Institution
One of the easiest ways to learn is to take courses, or enroll in a diploma, certificate, Lifelong Learning Essays degree program. My first serious learning began in 1978, when I enrolled in a liberal arts program at the University of Toronto. I took courses I had never heard of, subjects like anthropology, political science, philosophy, sociology, medieval history. The more I learned in these and other liberal arts courses, the more I became Lifelong Learning Essays, the more questions I had.

Each field of study had its own set of concepts, theories, terminology, and experts. The more I read, studied, and learned about a particular topic, the more "Lifelong Learning Essays" realized how much there was to still to learn. For instance, in history, Lifelong Learning Essays could enroll in introductory American, Russian, Chinese, Eastern, British, Canadian, medieval, Renaissance history, and more.

Once I completed a course, I could enroll in more advanced courses, which would dig deeper into the subject. In 1983, Lifelong Learning Essays graduated with an Honours B.A, feeling confident and optimistic about the future. I had learned how to learn, met lots of interesting people, and expanded my mind with knowledge, and developed strong writing skills, as well as a motivation for lifelong learning. Though I didn’t qualify for a particular career, I enjoyed the courses in psychology, sociology, history, economics, political science, helped me to develop liberal-minded thinking.

In 1995, Windows 95, with its Graphical User Interface, "Lifelong Learning Essays" the Internet were born. Knowing little about computers and nothing Lifelong Learning Essays the Web, I became motivated to learn how to use the Internet as a tool for conducting research and how to use word processing software as a writing tool, Lifelong Learning EssaysWhy Does Religion Exist Essays took a couple of courses. Enjoying the experience working with digital technologies, I enrolled in a Computer Programming Diploma at Sheridan college in Oakville, Lifelong Learning Essays. For the next two years, I learned how to write software programs using the computer languages of C, C++, Visual Basic, and HTML. I also learned how to use Netscape, one of Lifelong Learning Essays first Web browsers. I learned to use MS Word, Excel, and Power Point. And I learned to design and create a Website and write technical documentation, including online help, Web content, and Lifelong Learning Essays guides. After graduating from the computer program at college, I applied for a Lifelong Learning Essays as a Technical Writer, where I worked writing Web content, printed documentation, and online help for the next few years. It was this learning in information technology that Lifelong Learning Essays doors to better employment.

My learning in an educational setting stopped for about 15 years, until the the birth Lifelong Learning Essays the Lifelong Learning Essays camera and the digital darkroom. In 2007, I developed a strong interest in creative pursuits and Lifelong Learning Essays desire to express my creative spirit. So I have taken up digital photography, enrolling a Digital Photography courses at Ryerson University in Toronto in the fall of 2011. I have learned how to see creatively, shoot in Aperture priority, manual mode, and shutter priority with a variety of lens. I have Lifelong Learning Essays learning how to use Lightroom and Photoshop, software that allows you to edit digital photographs and apply special effects like those of Instagram. I have learned that photography is a way to make a social commentary, document the human condition, create different types of art, and express my creative vision of the world. You can see my work at http://www.davehoodphotography.org .

Learning by Reading Magazines and Books
Reading is an easy way to learn new facts and concepts related to a particular topic, as well as learn to write and develop your vocabulary.
It’s also one of the best methods of learning, especially if you are not enrolled in college or Lifelong Learning Essays.Read books of interest Two Source Interference Tutorial Homework Answers books on what you "Lifelong Learning Essays" passionate about. In fact, it is the easiest way to embrace lifelong learning. After graduating, I read several biographies of a historical people and books on the Cold War Lifelong Learning Essays political books. But then the Cold War ended, attack politics became the norm, and the economic problems of unemployment, slow growth, poverty were never solved, and so I became disenchanted and bored Lifelong Learning Essays moved into reading books on psychology. Some books that stand out are self-help books, like The Seven Habits of Highly Successful People by Steven Covey and How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie. However, in the mid 90s, the dawn of the digital age diverted my attention away from reading Lifelong Learning Essays and psychology books Lifelong Learning Essays reading books and magazines related to information technology, such as Wired magazine.

The more knowledge I soaked up from reading, the more I realized how there are so many things in life’s journey that are captivating and awe-inspiring. They sparked my curiosity to know why. For instance, a few weeks ago, I read Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything” by Joshua Foer. It was a fascinating read, and I learned how to improve my memory by learning a few techniques of mnemonics (memory devices). One particular device “blue my mind”—the memory Lifelong Learning Essays or method of loci. Clearly, my reading had led me to something knew and enchanting, something that could benefit me.

Personal Learning Projects
While attending university during the 1980s, I desired to become a writer–but my writing skills weren’t very good. I didn’t know the difference between a phrase or a clause, the active voice or the passive voice, how to structure an essay, different parts of speech, and so forth. After my first year of university, my writing was so poor that I received two grades of D+. These poor marks motivated me to learn how to write, and so I purchased a couple of textbooks and began to study. I taught myself everything there is to know about parts of speech, parts of a sentence, grammar, mechanics, punctuation, different types of paragraphs, various types of sentences, and how to structure different types of essays.

As well, I mastered the Lifelong Learning Essays of Strunk and White’s “Elements of Style,” the classic, short text that provides the essentials of writing Lifelong Learning Essays. (Every college and university student should own a copy and internalize the writing advice.)To expand my vocabulary, I began learning a new word each day, words like cornucopia, grandiloquent, serendipity. The following year, my grades improved by 20%. This experience of self-directed learning enabled me to improve my writing skills and increase my confidence. I felt that I could write about anything. I also began to view myself as "Lifelong Learning Essays" writer–an unpublished writer.

And then the Internet opened digital publishing. In 2009, I decided to immerse myself in Creative Writing—poetry, fiction, creative nonfiction. My self-study project began by finding out what where the best books on learning to write poetry, short fiction, and personal essays. I unearthed this information at Poets & Writers website and Amazon.com, and then I purchased Lifelong Learning Essays than 40 books on these creative writing topics. For the next five years, I learned how to write free verse poetry, fiction, creative nonfiction in my leisure time. I also created and wrote creative writing articles on a blog called “Find Your Creative Muse.” Last year, I rewrote the blog articles and published an eBook called “The Art and Craft of Creative Writing” on Amazon.com. Presently, I am working Lifelong Learning Essays writing poetry, fiction, personal essays, with the hope of publishing in a literary journal. I have learned that creative writing gives me the freedom to express my creative spirit and authenticity.

What I have Learned from Lifelong Learning
It has enabled me to escape Lifelong Learning Essays drudgery of daily life. I rarely become bored, because I’m always learning something new. In other words, learning distracts me from my existential existence.

Learning has provided me with lifetime skills in writing, computers, "Lifelong Learning Essays" technology, digital photography, as well as a wide-variety of interests and passions. Unwittingly, this learning also helped me to setup and create a blog on WordPress, which has allowed me to express my passion for writing.

By reading widely and deeply, I have developed my writing skills What Is A Critical Thinking Test acquired a treasure trove of topics to write about and discuss with others.

Rather than learn or read or follow everything, I focus my time and attention on learning about things related to my passions and interests.

The best kind of learning involves combining a skill and knowledge with some creative pursuit, such as writing, painting, photography, playing the piano. The combination of skill and knowledge will allow you to Lifelong Learning Essays your creativity, share your thoughts and feelings about your life’s journey, as well as make social commentary about a world that is forever changing. The next best learning is acquiring knowledge and skill for work you love.

Lifelong learning has also improved my well-being. Instead of worrying or focusing on the Lifelong Learning Essays, I now focus my time and energy on writing and photography in the present. doing this, I have added meaning and purpose, as well as injected enjoyment into my life.

I embrace what the philosopher Socrates Lifelong Learning Essays “The unexamined life is not worth living.” And so, learning has allowed me to explore and attempt to answer haunting questions Lifelong Learning Essays the mysteries of life. Learning has introduced me to new ideas, concepts, different points of view, different modes of thinking. I perceive the world Lifelong Learning Essays an open mindset. I am liberal minded and tolerant of differences.

I have discovered that learning enriches life experiences. For instance, the person who doesn’t understand “art” will look at some abstract painting and say,” That’s stupid.” But the person who has studied the history of art and learned the techniques of painting will be able to analyze, interpret, and appreciate the artwork.

And the more I have learned, the more I have realized Lifelong Learning Essays little I know. It was Voltaire who said, Lifelong Learning Essays more I read, "Lifelong Learning Essays" more I acquire, the more certain I am that I know nothing.”

If you are bored with your life or seek to improve your sense of well-being, discover your passion and then immerse yourself in it. Begin by learning.

This entry was posted in Essay, Lifelong Learning, Personal Essay and tagged Approach to Learning, creative writing, Dave Hood, Degree, Learning projects, Lifelong learning, Photographer, reading, television, travel, writer. Bookmark the permalink.

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