Beginning the Proposal Process
As with writing a regular academic paper, research proposals are generally organized the same way throughout most social science disciplines. Proposals vary between ten and twenty-five pages in length. However, before you begin, read the assignment carefully and, if anything seems unclear, ask your professor whether there are any specific requirements for organizing and writing the proposal.
A good place to begin is to ask yourself a series of questions:
- What do I want to study?
- Why is the topic important?
- How is it significant within the subject areas covered in my class?
- What problems will it help solve?
- How does it build upon [and hopefully go beyond] research already conducted on the topic?
- What exactly should I plan to do, and can I get it done in the time available?
In general, a compelling research proposal should document your knowledge of the topic and demonstrate your enthusiasm for conducting the study. Approach it with the intention of leaving your readers feeling like--"Wow, that's an exciting idea and I can’t wait to see how it turns out!"
In general your proposal should include the following sections:
In the real world of higher education, a research proposal is most often written by scholars seeking grant funding for a research project or it's the first step in getting approval to write a doctoral dissertation. Even if this is just a course assignment, treat your introduction as the initial pitch of an idea or a thorough examination of the significance of a research problem. After reading the introduction, your readers should not only have an understanding of what you want to do, but they should also be able to gain a sense of your passion for the topic and be excited about the study's possible outcomes. Note that most proposals do not include an abstract [summary] before the introduction.
Think about your introduction as a narrative written in one to three paragraphs that succinctly answers the following four questions:
- What is the central research problem?
- What is the topic of study related to that problem?
- What methods should be used to analyze the research problem?
- Why is this important research, what is its significance, and why should someone reading the proposal care about the outcomes of the proposed study?
II. Background and Significance
This section can be melded into your introduction or you can create a separate section to help with the organization and narrative flow of your proposal. This is where you explain the context of your proposal and describe in detail why it's important. Approach writing this section with the thought that you can’t assume your readers will know as much about the research problem as you do. Note that this section is not an essay going over everything you have learned about the topic; instead, you must choose what is relevant to help explain the goals for your study.
To that end, while there are no hard and fast rules, you should attempt to address some or all of the following key points:
- State the research problem and give a more detailed explanation about the purpose of the study than what you stated in the introduction. This is particularly important if the problem is complex or multifaceted.
- Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing. Answer the "So What? question [i.e., why should anyone care].
- Describe the major issues or problems to be addressed by your research. Be sure to note how your proposed study builds on previous assumptions about the research problem.
- Explain how you plan to go about conducting your research. Clearly identify the key sources you intend to use and explain how they will contribute to your analysis of the topic.
- Set the boundaries of your proposed research in order to provide a clear focus. Where appropriate, state not only what you will study, but what is excluded from the study.
- If necessary, provide definitions of key concepts or terms.
III. Literature Review
Connected to the background and significance of your study is a section of your proposal devoted to a more deliberate review and synthesis of prior studies related to the research problem under investigation. The purpose here is to place your project within the larger whole of what is currently being explored, while demonstrating to your readers that your work is original and innovative. Think about what questions other researchers have asked, what methods they have used, and what is your understanding of their findings and, where stated, their recommendations. Do not be afraid to challenge the conclusions of prior research. Assess what you believe is missing and state how previous research has failed to adequately examine the issue that your study addresses. For more information on writing literature reviews, GO HERE.
Since a literature review is information dense, it is crucial that this section is intelligently structured to enable a reader to grasp the key arguments underpinning your study in relation to that of other researchers. A good strategy is to break the literature into "conceptual categories" [themes] rather than systematically describing groups of materials one at a time. Note that conceptual categories generally reveal themselves after you have read most of the pertinent literature on your topic so adding new categories is an on-going process of discovery as you read more studies. How do you know you've covered the key conceptual categories underlying the research literature? Generally, you can have confidence that all of the significant conceptual categories have been identified if you start to see repetition in the conclusions or recommendations that are being made.
To help frame your proposal's literature review, here are the "five C’s" of writing a literature review:
- Cite, so as to keep the primary focus on the literature pertinent to your research problem.
- Compare the various arguments, theories, methodologies, and findings expressed in the literature: what do the authors agree on? Who applies similar approaches to analyzing the research problem?
- Contrast the various arguments, themes, methodologies, approaches, and controversies expressed in the literature: what are the major areas of disagreement, controversy, or debate?
- Critique the literature: Which arguments are more persuasive, and why? Which approaches, findings, methodologies seem most reliable, valid, or appropriate, and why? Pay attention to the verbs you use to describe what an author says/does [e.g., asserts, demonstrates, argues, etc.].
- Connect the literature to your own area of research and investigation: how does your own work draw upon, depart from, synthesize, or add a new perspective to what has been said in the literature?
IV. Research Design and Methods
This section must be well-written and logically organized because you are not actually doing the research, yet, your reader has to have confidence that it is worth pursuing. The reader will never have a study outcome from which to evaluate whether your methodological choices were the correct ones. Thus, the objective here is to convince the reader that your overall research design and methods of analysis will correctly address the problem and that the methods will provide the means to effectively interpret the potential results. Your design and methods should be unmistakably tied to the specific aims of your study.
Describe the overall research design by building upon and drawing examples from your review of the literature. Consider not only methods that other researchers have used but methods of data gathering that have not been used but perhaps could be. Be specific about the methodological approaches you plan to undertake to obtain information, the techniques you would use to analyze the data, and the tests of external validity to which you commit yourself [i.e., the trustworthiness by which you can generalize from your study to other people, places, events, and/or periods of time].
When describing the methods you will use, be sure to cover the following:
- Specify the research operations you will undertake and the way you will interpret the results of these operations in relation to the research problem. Don't just describe what you intend to achieve from applying the methods you choose, but state how you will spend your time while applying these methods [e.g., coding text from interviews to find statements about the need to change school curriculum; running a regression to determine if there is a relationship between campaign advertising on social media sites and election outcomes in Europe].
- Keep in mind that a methodology is not just a list of tasks; it is an argument as to why these tasks add up to the best way to investigate the research problem. This is an important point because the mere listing of tasks to be performed does not demonstrate that, collectively, they effectively address the research problem. Be sure you explain this.
- Anticipate and acknowledge any potential barriers and pitfalls in carrying out your research design and explain how you plan to address them. No method is perfect so you need to describe where you believe challenges may exist in obtaining data or accessing information. It's always better to acknowledge this than to have it brought up by your reader.
V. Preliminary Suppositions and Implications
Just because you don't have to actually conduct the study and analyze the results, it doesn't mean you can skip talking about the analytical process and potential implications. The purpose of this section is to argue how and in what ways you believe your research will refine, revise, or extend existing knowledge in the subject area under investigation. Depending on the aims and objectives of your study, describe how the anticipated results will impact future scholarly research, theory, practice, forms of interventions, or policymaking. Note that such discussions may have either substantive [a potential new policy], theoretical [a potential new understanding], or methodological [a potential new way of analyzing] significance.
When thinking about the potential implications of your study, ask the following questions:
- What might the results mean in regards to the theoretical framework that underpins the study?
- What suggestions for subsequent research could arise from the potential outcomes of the study?
- What will the results mean to practitioners in the natural settings of their workplace?
- Will the results influence programs, methods, and/or forms of intervention?
- How might the results contribute to the solution of social, economic, or other types of problems?
- Will the results influence policy decisions?
- In what way do individuals or groups benefit should your study be pursued?
- What will be improved or changed as a result of the proposed research?
- How will the results of the study be implemented, and what innovations will come about?
NOTE: This section should not delve into idle speculation, opinion, or be formulated on the basis of unclear evidence. The purpose is to reflect upon gaps or understudied areas of the current literature and describe how your proposed research contributes to a new understanding of the research problem should the study be implemented as designed.
The conclusion reiterates the importance or significance of your proposal and provides a brief summary of the entire study. This section should be only one or two paragraphs long, emphasizing why the research problem is worth investigating, why your research study is unique, and how it should advance existing knowledge.
Someone reading this section should come away with an understanding of:
- Why the study should be done,
- The specific purpose of the study and the research questions it attempts to answer,
- The decision to why the research design and methods used where chosen over other options,
- The potential implications emerging from your proposed study of the research problem, and
- A sense of how your study fits within the broader scholarship about the research problem.
As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used in composing your proposal. In a standard research proposal, this section can take two forms, so consult with your professor about which one is preferred.
- References -- lists only the literature that you actually used or cited in your proposal.
- Bibliography -- lists everything you used or cited in your proposal, with additional citations to any key sources relevant to understanding the research problem.
In either case, this section should testify to the fact that you did enough preparatory work to make sure the project will complement and not duplicate the efforts of other researchers. Start a new page and use the heading "References" or "Bibliography" centered at the top of the page. Cited works should always use a standard format that follows the writing style advised by the discipline of your course [i.e., education=APA; history=Chicago, etc] or that is preferred by your professor. This section normally does not count towards the total page length of your research proposal.
Develop a Research Proposal: Writing the Proposal. Office of Library Information Services. Baltimore County Public Schools; Heath, M. Teresa Pereira and Caroline Tynan. “Crafting a Research Proposal.” The Marketing Review 10 (Summer 2010): 147-168; Jones, Mark. “Writing a Research Proposal.” In MasterClass in Geography Education: Transforming Teaching and Learning. Graham Butt, editor. (New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015), pp. 113-127; Krathwohl, David R. How to Prepare a Dissertation Proposal: Suggestions for Students in Education and the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005; Procter, Margaret. The Academic Proposal. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Punch, Keith and Wayne McGowan. "Developing and Writing a Research Proposal." In From Postgraduate to Social Scientist: A Guide to Key Skills. Nigel Gilbert, ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006), 59-81; Sanford, Keith. Information for Students: Writing a Research Proposal. Baylor University; Wong, Paul T. P. How to Write a Research Proposal. International Network on Personal Meaning. Trinity Western University; Writing Academic Proposals: Conferences, Articles, and Books. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Writing a Research Proposal. University Library. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Thesis Proposal Template
Proposal Prepared by [NAME] in part fulfillment of the degree requirements for the [DEGREE LEVEL] of [ARTS OR SCIENCES] in [DEGREE AREA].
PandaTip: The Abstract starts off your thesis proposal by introducing a summary of the complete proposal. This will explain the problem or issues you will address, investigate, or research. This section should be fairly brief, but should provide enough basic information to explain your proposed research and/or dissertation fully.
PandaTip: This section provides an introduction to the problem you will be studying. This section, as well as the entire thesis proposal, will differ significantly depending on whether the proposal is for a science discipline or an arts and humanities discipline. This introduction section should emphasize that your topic is an area worthy of great study and attention.
The proposed issue of this thesis has been addressed previously by numerous scholars. These scholars include such individuals as [NAMES OF SCHOLARS]. Their assessment of this topic has shown…
The proposed topic of this thesis has been addressed previously by numerous researchers in the field. Their investigations have shown…
PandaTip: Use this subsection to show your grasp of the topic you’ll be researching, providing a brief overview of what knowledge is already available. You will expand upon this in a coming section. You can discuss here various angles on the topic.
b. Significance of Research
PandaTip: Explain here how further research on this subject is important. If your thesis is for a science discipline, you might indicate how further knowledge on your particular area of research would be useful in practical ways. For a humanities thesis, you might emphasize how a new viewpoint on a certain topic could help make new discoveries in that area.
EXISTING KNOWLEDGE/SIGNIFICANT PRIOR RESEARCH
PandaTip: Although you have briefly covered this in a general way above, this section allows you to delve in to the particular existing research which directly affects your topic. In other words, you may here introduce the idea you will be refuting, the author/historian you will be challenging, or the piece of information you feel needs a closer look or new angle. Your understanding of the existing knowledge on your subject should clearly demonstrate that there is a GAP in that body of knowledge, and your proposed thesis intends to fill that gap.
THESIS OR PROJECT STATEMENT
PandaTip: Your thesis statement presents the argument you will make in your thesis/dissertation or asserts the specific question you will be asking or investigating with your research. This should relate to the previous section, by showing how you’ll be filling a gap in the existing body of knowledge or prior research.
PandaTip: Dependent upon whether your thesis is for a science or humanities discipline, this section can be altered to fit your program needs. A science or active research-based thesis may rely less heavily on the Bibliography of Sources subsection and spend more time detailing research methods to be utilized.
This thesis project will depend upon the following research methods for garnering results:
PandaTip: Methods may include a wide variety of things, such as surveys for sociological or psychological research projects, laboratory experimentation, fieldwork, etc. Be sure to provide highly detailed descriptions of the methods you will use in your research, including specifics such as numbers, dates, locations, resources to be used, and more.
b. Bibliography of Sources
[LAST NAME, FIRST NAME]. [TITLE OF BOOK]. [CITY OF PUBLICATION]: [PUBLISHER], [YEAR OF PUBLICATION]. [MEDIUM OF PUBLICATION].
PandaTip: For a scientific thesis, this section may be more brief, including previous research projects and/or reports you will be referencing or using. With a humanities or arts thesis, this section will be much larger. Make sure you are formatting your sources properly, using the same referencing style you will use in your final dissertation or presentation. (Style provided in citation example above is MLA). Some programs require an annotated bibliography, meaning that you will need to briefly assess the viability of each source you will be using, and explain why it will contribute to your research. Check with your university guidelines.
c. Implications of Research
PandaTip: In this subsection you can indicate what implications your research will have in your field. Address how the addition of this research may change or alter the current knowledge on a subject. This will help further cement the need and usefulness of your intended research.
PandaTip: This section is probably unnecessary in an arts or humanities thesis proposal, but should be included in a scientific or active research based thesis. Here you will outline what you believe the results of your research will show. This goes hand in hand with your thesis, as you intend or expect to obtain certain results.
PandaTip: Again, this section may be more applicable to a scientific thesis, but is potentially helpful in a humanities thesis, if applicable. Using this section, discuss any limitations which may affect your research or obstacles which your research may encounter. Address potential faults in your research methods and look at ways in which your research may miss certain points. Having a well-thought out Limitations section will demonstrate that you know the pitfalls and potential challenges with your chosen research methods, but will show that you have selected the best methods with regards to your project.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE
PandaTip: In this section, elaborate on what contributions your individual research or study will make to the body of knowledge as a whole in your field. Show once more how your thesis will help fill the existing gaps in knowledge or will show a particular topic from a new angle. If performing active research, explain how the intended results will contribute to the knowledge or how the results will change commonly held ideas.
PROPOSED DISSERTATION CHAPTERS
II. [TITLE OF CHAPTER]
III. [TITLE OF CHAPTER]
IV. [TITLE OF CHAPTER]
PandaTip: Lastly, show that you have a well-conceived and fully designed thesis by introducing your intended dissertation chapters.This will help you as well, when writing the dissertation, as you will have a clear outline to follow and a well-developed way of introducing your argument, supporting information, and your conclusion. You can provide titles for these chapters, if necessary, or simply indicate what each chapter will contain.