Liaquat Ali Khan Short Essay About Life

Liaquat Ali khan was born on October1‚1896 in Nausharwan family. He belongs to a wealthy family of East Punjab. His mother arranged for his lessons in Quran and Ahadith at home. As his family had deep respect for Sir Syed Ahmad khan‚he was admitted in Aligarah Muslim University. He was graduated from M.A.O collage Aligarah in1918.  In1919 after the death of his father‚he was awarded a scholarship by British government. In1921 he was awarded the LLM in law and justice .In 1923 after his return to India‚ he decided to enter politics with the objective of liberating his homeland free from foreign yoke.

The congress Leadership approached to him and he attended a meeting with Jawaherlal Nehru in 1923.After the meeting Liaquat Ali khan views of United India was changed.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah called him for an annual session of All India Muslim League in May 1924in Lahore‚where the goals and vision of the party was discussed. Liaquat Ali khan started his parliamentary career from U.P legislative Assembly in 1926 as an independent candidate. In 1923 he was elected Deputy President of U.P Legislative Council. He remained the member of the U.P Legislative Council until 1940‚when he was elected to the central Legislative Assembly.

Liaquat Ali Khan took active part in legislative affairs .when Muhammad Ali Jinnah returned to India‚he started reorganizing the AIML. Liaquat Ali khan was elected as the honorary secretary of the AIML in April 26‚1936. He held the office till 1947. Liaquat Ali khan was also the member of the Muslim masses civil defense‚which was formed to keep Muslim safe from the activities of INC and strengthen the league mission.

Liaquat Ali khan won the central legislative election in 1945-46 in U.P. He was also elected the chairman of the league central parliamentary Board. The AIML won 87% seats reserved for Muslims in British India. When British Government asked the League to send five nominees for representation in term Government. Liaquat Ali Khan was asked to lead the League group in Cabinet, which he handled brilliantly. By this point the British Government and INC both accepted the idea of Pakistan and therefore on August 14, 1947 Pakistan came into existence. After independence, Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed the first prime minister of Pakistan.

Liaquat Ali Khan had to deal a number of difficulties facing Pakistan in its early days. He helped Quaid in solving the rights and refugee problems. He set an effective administrative system for the country.

In 1949 Soviet Union invited Liaquat Ali Khan, but in 1950 he visited the United State, which was the time of extensive competition between the two super powers.

During the first days he adopted the Government act of India 1935 to administer the country, finally in 1949 Pakistan made first step towards making constitution and foreign policy. Liaquat Ali Khan presented the objective resolution which was passed on March 12, 1949. He also established the basic principle committee for the issue minority partitioning Liaquat/Nero fact reduced the tension between India and Pakistan.

On October 16, 1951 Liaquat Ali Khan was shot twice in chest during a public meeting of the Muslim League at company Bagh Rawalpindi. The police immediately shot the assassin, Saad Akbar Babrak. Liaquat was rushed to Hospital but he succumbed to his injuries. He was officially the title of Shaheed-i-Millat, but the question of his murder is yet too answered.

Some of the people thinking it may be due to those elements who organize the Rawalpindi conspiracy, as they were released and was appointed to high official posts in later period by the Government.

"Liaqat Ali" redirects here. For other uses, see Liaqat Ali (disambiguation).

Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Næʍābzādāh Liāqat Alī Khān listen (help·info),Urdu: لِیاقت علی خان‬‎ ; born October 1895 – 16 October 1951), widely known as Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation) and Shaheed-e-Millat[1] (Urdu: شہِیدِ مِلّت‬‎ Martyr of the Nation), was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan,[2] statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the firstPrime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he also held cabinet portfolio as the first foreign, defence, and the frontier regions minister from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.[2][2] Allegations had been pointed towards the involvement of Afghan monarchZahir Shah and the United States government in his assassination, though this claim has not merited any substantial evidence.[3] Prior to that, he briefly tenured as the first finance minister in the interim government led by its Governor GeneralMountbatten.[2]

He was born into an influential feudalMuslim – Nausherwani family in Karnal, Eastern Punjab on 1 October 1895.[4] Ali Khan was educated at the Aligarh Muslim University in India, and then at Oxford University in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] Well-educated, he was a democratic political theorist who promoted parliamentarism in India. After first being invited by the Congress Party, he opted for the Muslim League led by influential Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was advocating the eradication of the injustices and ill-treatment meted out to Indian Muslims by the British government.[5] He pursued his role in the independence movements of India and Pakistan, while serving as the first Finance Minister in the interim government of British Indian Empire, prior to the independence and partition of India and Pakistan in 1947.[5] Ali Khan assisted Jinnah in campaigning for the creation of a separate state for Indian Muslims.[6]

Ali Khan's credentials secured him the appointment of Pakistan's first Prime Minister, Ali Khan's foreign policy sided with the United States and the West, though his foreign policy was determined to be a part of the Non Aligned Movement.[7] Facing internal political unrest, his government survived a coup hatched by the leftists and communists. Nonetheless, his influence grew further after Jinnah's death, and he was responsible for promulgating the Objectives Resolution. In 1951, at a political rally in Rawalpindi, Ali Khan was assassinated by a hired assassin, Said Babrak.[citation needed]

Early life[edit]

Family Background and Education[edit]

Liaquat Ali Khan was into an aristocratPunjabi[8][9] family in Karnal, Punjab in India on 1 October 1895.[10][11] His family roots were described as Punjabi[12][13][8][14], according to various of his autobiographical sources,and according to English biographical data it is noted that his ancestors had emigrated from Iran to India around 500 years ago.[15]

His father, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan, possessed the titles of Rukun-al-Daulah, Shamsher Jang and Nawab Bahadur, by the local population and the British Government who had wide respect for his family. The Ali Khan family was one of the few landlords whose property (300 villages in total including the jagir of 60 villages in Karnal) expanded across both eastern Punjab and Muzaffarnagar the United Provinces.[16] Both of his parents, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan and Mahmoodah Begum are buried at their princely family compound located outside Karnal, Haryana, India.[17] Liaquat Ali Khan’s former personal residence is located at Jansath Tehsil of Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh about 80km from his ancestral estate and is now being considered by the Uttar Pradesh government to be opened as a tourist destination.[18]The family owned pre-eminence to timely support given by Liaqat's grandfather Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan of Karnal to British army during 1857 rebellion.(source-Lepel Griffin's Punjab Chiefs Volume One). Liaquat Ali Khan's mother, Mahmoodah Begum, arranged for his lessons in the Qur'an and Ahadith at home before his formal schooling started.[citation needed] His family had strong ties with the British Government, and the senior British government officers were usually visited at his big and wide mansion at their time of visit.[citation needed]

His family had deep respect for the Indian Muslim thinker and philosopher Syed Ahmad Khan, and his father had a desire for the young Liaqat Ali Khan to beeducated in the British educational system; therefore, his family sent Ali Khan to the famous Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), where he obtained degrees in law and political science.

In 1913, Ali Khan attended the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College (now Aligarh Muslim University), graduating with a BSc degree in Political science and LLB in 1918, and married his cousin, Jehangira Begum, also in 1918.[19] After the death of his father in 1919, Ali Khan, with British Government awarding the grants and scholarship, went to England, attending Oxford University's Exeter College to pursue his higher education.[citation needed] In 1921, Ali Khan was awarded the Master of Law in Law and Justice, by the college faculty who also conferred on him a Bronze Medallion.[citation needed] While a graduate student at Oxford, Ali Khan actively participated in student unions and was elected Honorary Treasurer of the Majlis Society— a student union founded by Indian Muslim students to promote the Indian students' rights at the university.[citation needed] Thereafter, Ali Khan was called to join the Inner Temple, one of the Inns of Court in London.[citation needed] He was called to the Bar in 1922 by one of his English law professor, and starting his practices in law as an advocate.[16]

Political activism in British India[edit]

Ali Khan returned to his homeland India in 1923, entering in national politics, determining to eradicate to what he saw as the injustice and ill-treatment of Indian Muslims under the British Indian Government and the British Government.[citation needed] His political philosophy strongly emphasis a united India, first gradually believing in the Indian nationalism. The Congress leadership approached to Ali Khan to become a part of the party, but after attending the meeting with Jawaharlal Nehru, Ali Khan's political views and ambitions gradually changed.[citation needed] Therefore, Ali Khan refused, informing the Congress Party about his decision, and instead joining the All-India Muslim League|Muslim League in 1923, led under another lawyer Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Soon Jinnah called for an annual session meeting in May 1924, in Lahore, where the goals, boundaries, party programmes, vision, and revival of the League, was an initial party agenda and, was carefully discussed at the Lahore caucus. At this meeting, Khan was among those who attended this conference, and recommending the new goals for the party.[citation needed]

United Province legislation[edit]

Ali Khan initially compaigned in the 1926 elections from the rural Muslim constituency of Muzzaffarnagar for the provisional legislative council.[20] Ali Khan won the elections with unanimously and with heavy margin, whilst there were no opponents that campaign against him.[20] After taking the oath, Ali Khan embarked his parliamentary career, representing the United Provinces at the Legislative Council in 1926.[20] In 1932, he was unanimously elected Deputy President of UP Legislative Council.[16][20]

During this time, Ali Khan intensified his support in Muslim dominated populations, often raising the problems and challenges faced by the Muslim communities in the United Province.[20] Ali Khan joined hands with academician Sir Ziauddin Ahmed, taking to organize the Muslim students communities into one student union, advocating for the provisional rights of the Muslim state.[20] His strong advocacy for Muslims rights had brought him into national prominence and significant respect was also gained from Hindu communities whom he also fought for them at higher hierarchy of the government.[20] Ali Khan remained the elected member of the UP Legislative Council until 1940, when he was proceeded to elect to the Central Legislative Assembly; he participated actively, and was the influential member in legislative affairs, where his recommendations would also noted by other members.[20]

In his parliamentary career, Ali Khan established his reputation as "eloquent principled and honest spokesman" who would never compromised on his principles even in the face of severe odds.[21] Ali Khan, on several occasions, used his influence and good offices for the liquidation of communal tension and bitterness.[21]

Allying with Muslim League[edit]

Ali Khan rose to become one of the influential members of the Muslim League, and was one of the central figure in the Muslim League delegation that attended the National Convention held at Calcutta.[22] Earlier the British Government had formed the Simon Commission to recommend the constitutional and territorial reforms to the British Government.[22] The commission, compromising the seven British Members of Parliament, headed under its Chairman Sir John Simon, met briefly with Congress Party and Muslim League leaders.[22] The commission had introduced the system of dyarchy to govern the provinces of British India, but these revision met with harsh critic and clamoured by the Indian public.[22]Motilal Nehru presented his Nehru Report to counter British charges.[22] In 1928, Ali Khan and Jinnah decided to discuss the Nehru Report in December 1928.[23] In 1930, Ali Khan and Jinnah attended the First Round Table Conference, but it ended in disaster, leading Jinnah to depart from British India to Great Britain.[23] During this meantime, Ali Khan's second marriage took place in December 1932. His wife, Begum Ra'ana, was a prominent economist and an educator.[24] She, too, was an influential figure in the Pakistan movement.[24]

Ali Khan firmed believed in the unity of Hindu-Muslim community, and worked tirelessly for that cause.[22] In his party presidential address delivered at the Provisional Muslim Education Conference at AMU in 1932, Ali Khan expressed the view that Muslims had "distinct [c]ulture of their own and had the (every) right to persevere it".[22] At this conference, Liaquat Ali Khan announced that:

But, days of rapid communalism, in this country (British India) are numbered.., and we shall ere witnessed long the united Hindu-Muslim India anxious to persevere and maintain all that rich and valuable heritage which the contact of two great cultures bequeathed us. We all believe in the great destiny of our common motherland to achieve which common assets are but invaluable....

— Liaquat Ali Khan, addressing the students and academicians in 1932, [22]

Soon, Ali Khan and his wife departed to England, but did not terminate his connections with the Muslim League. With Ali Khan departing, the Muslim League's parliamentary wing disintegrated, with many Muslim members joining the either Democratic Party, originally organized by Ali Khan in 1930, and the Congress Party.[22] At the deputation in England, Ali Khan made close study of organizing the political parties, and would soon return to his country with Jinnah.[22]

In 1930, Jinnah urged Prime minister Ramsay MacDonald and his ViceroyLord Irwin to convene a Round Table Conferences in London.[25] In spite of what Jinnah was expecting, the conference was a complete failure, forcing Jinnah to retire from national politics and permanently settlein London and practise law before the Privy Council.[16][26]

During this time, Liaquat Ali Khan and his wife joined Jinnah, with Ali Khan practising economic law and his wife joining the faculty of economics at the local college. Ali Khan and his wife spent most of their time convincing Jinnah to return to British India to unite the scattered Muslim League mass into one full force.[26][27] Meanwhile, Choudhry Rahmat Ali coined the "Pakstan term in his famous pamphlet Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?.[26] With Rehmat Ali and Mohammad Iqbal (who would also take him in confidence of seeing a vision in his dream of a separate Muslim state).[26][27]

Pakistan movement[edit]

Main articles: Pakistan Movement, Indian independence movement, and Pakistan Resolution

When Muhammad Ali Jinnah returned to India, he started to reorganise the Muslim League. In 1936, the annual session of the League met in Bombay (now Mumbai). In the open session on 12 April 1936, Jinnah moved a resolution proposing Khan as the Honorary General Secretary. The resolution was unanimously adopted and he held the office till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.[28] In 1940, Khan was made the deputy leader of the Muslim League Parliamentary party. Jinnah was not able to take active part in the proceedings of the Assembly on account of his heavy political work. It was Khan who stood in his place. During this period, Khan was also the Honorary General Secretary of the Muslim League, the deputy leader of their party, Convenor of the Action Committee of the Muslim League, Chairman of the Central Parliamentary Board and the managing director of the newspaper Dawn.[29]

The Pakistan Resolution was adopted in 1940 at the Lahore session of the Muslim League. The same year elections were held for the central legislative assembly which were contested by Khan from the Barielly constituency. He was elected without contest. When the twenty-eighth session of the League met in Madras (now Chennai) on 12 April 1941, Jinnah told party members that the ultimate aim was to obtain Pakistan. In this session, Khan moved a resolution incorporating the objectives of the Pakistan Resolution in the aims and objectives of the Muslim League. The resolution was seconded and passed unanimously.[29]

In 1945–46, mass elections were held in India and Khan won the Central Legislature election from the Meerut Constituency in the United Provinces. He was also elected Chairman of the League's Central Parliamentary Board. The Muslim League won 87% of seats reserved for Muslims of British India.[30] He assisted Jinnah in his negotiations with the members of the Cabinet Mission and the leaders of the Congress during the final phases of the Freedom Movement and it was decided that an interim government would be formed consisting of members of the Congress, the Muslim League and minority leaders. When the Government asked the Muslim League to send five nominees for representation in the interim government, Khan was asked to lead the League group in the cabinet. He was given the portfolio of finance.[31] The other four men nominated by the League were Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar, Ghazanfar Ali Khan, Abdur Rab Nishtar, and Jogendra Nath Mandal.[32] By this point, the British government and the Indian National Congress had both accepted the idea of Pakistan and therefore on 14 August 1947, Pakistan came into existence.[23]

Prime Minister of Pakistan (1947-51)[edit]

Ali Khan administration: Immigration and census[edit]

After independence, Khan was appointed as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan by the founding fathers of Pakistan. Khan was made the prime minister during the penultimate times, the country was born at the time of starting of the extensive competition between two world superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union.[33] Khan faced with mounted challenges and difficulties while trying to administer the country. Khan and the Muslim League faced with dual competitions with socialists in West-Pakistan and, the communists in East Pakistan.[33] The Muslim League founded difficult to face competition with socialists in West Pakistan, and lost considerable support in favor of socialists led its Marxist leader Faiz Ahmad Faiz. In East Pakistan, the Muslim League's political base was vanished by Pakistan Communist Party after staging a mass protest.[33]

On the internal front, Khan faced with socialist's nationalists challenges and different religious ideologies further pushed the country into more unrest.[33] Problems with Soviet Union and Soviet bloc further escalated after Khan failed to make a visit to Soviet Union, despite his intention.[33] Khan envisioned a non-aligned foreign policy, however despite some initiatives, the country became more dependent on the United States and this ultimately influenced Khan's policy towards the communist bloc.[33] His government faced serious challenges including the dispute over Kashmir with India, forcing Khan to approach his counterpart the Prime minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru. A settlement was reached to end the fighting, while Nehru also referred the issue to the United Nations.[7] Generally an anti-communist, Ali Khan send the recommendation to Jinnah to appoint Abdul Rashid as country's first Chief Justice, and Justice Abdur Rahim as President of Constitutional Assembly, both of them were also the Founding fathers of Pakistan.[33] Earliest reforms Khan took was to centralize the Muslim League, and planned and prepared the Muslim League to become the successor authority of Pakistan.[33]

Economic and education policy[edit]

Main article: Five-Year Plans of Pakistan

Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan took initiatives to developed educational infrastructure, science and technology in the country, with carrying the vision of successful development of science and technology to aid the essential foreign policy of Pakistan.[34] In 1947, with Jinnah inviting Rafi Muhammad Chaudhry to Pakistan, on the other hand, Liaquat Ali Khan called Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, awarding him the citizenship, and appointed him as his first governmentscience adviser in 1950.[34] During this same time, Khan also called Raziuddin Siddiqui, asking him to plan and establish the educational research institutes in the country.[34] Khan asked Ziauddin Ahmed to draft the educational policy, which was submitted to his office in November 1947, and a road map to establishing the education in the country was quickly adopted by Khan's government.[34]

Khan's government authorized the establishment of the Sindh University.[34] Under his government, the science infrastructure was slowly built but he continued inviting Muslim scientists and engineers from India to Pakistan, believing it essential for Pakistan's future progress.[34]

In 1947, Khan and his Treasure minister Malick Ghulam proposed the idea of Five-Year Plans, by putting the country's economic system on investment and capitalism grounds.[35] Focussing on an initial Planned economic system under the directives of private sector and consortium industries in 1948, economic planning began to take place during his office, but soon collapsed partly because of unsystematic and inadequate staffing.[35] Khan's economic policies were soon heavily dependent to United State aid to the country.[35] In spite of planning an independent economic policy, Khan's economic policies focused on the United States' aid programme, on the other hand, Nehru focused on socialism and went on to be a part of Non Aligned Movement.[35] An important event during his premiership was the establishment of National Bank in November 1949, and the installation of a paper currency mill in Karachi.[36] Unlike his Indian counterpartJawaharlal Nehru, Khan drew Pakistan's economy planned, but open free market economy, with no government influence.[35]

Constitutional annex[edit]

Main article: Annex to the Constitution of Pakistan

During his first days, Khan first adopted the 1935 Act to administer the country, although his lawmakers and legislators continued to work on different bill.[37] Finally in 1949 after Jinnah's death, Prime Minister Khan intensified his vision to establish the Islamic system in the country, presenting the Objectives Resolution— a prelude to future constitutions, in the Constituent Assembly.[37] The house passed it on 12 March 1949, but it was met with criticism from his Law MinisterJogendra Nath Mandal who argued against it.[38] Severe criticism were also raised by MP Ayaz Amir On the other hand, Liquat Ali Khan described as this bill as the "Magna Carta" of Pakistan's constitutional history.[39] Khan called it "the most important occasion in the life of this country, next in importance, only to the achievement of independence". Under his leadership, a team of legislators also drafted the first report of the Basic Principle Committee and work began on the second report.[37]

War with India[edit]

Main article: Indo-Pakistani War of 1947

Soon after appointing a new government, Pakistan started a war with India over on Kashmir conflict in 1947–48.[40] The British commander of Pakistan Army General Sir Frank Walter Messervy, KCB, KCIE, CB, CBE, DSO, MC refused to send the army units, General Douglas Gracey was appointed the commander in chief of Pakistan Army, Liaquat Ali Khan ordered the independent units of the Pakistan Army to intervene in the conflict.[41] On Kashmir issue, Khan and Jinnah's policy reflected "Pakistan's alliance with U.S and United Kingdom" against the "Indian imperialism" and "Soviet expansion".[40] However, it is revealed by historians that differences and disagreement with Jinnah arose over the Kashmir issue.[40] Jinnah's strategy to liberate Kashmir was to use military force.[40] Thus, Jinnah's strategy was to "kill two birds with one stone",[40] namely decapitate India by controlling Kashmir, and to find a domestic solution through foreign and military intervention.[40]

On Khan's personal accounts and views, the prime minister preferred a "harder diplomatic" and "less military stance".[40] The prime minister sought a dialogue with his counterpart, and agreed to resolve the dispute of Kashmir in a peaceful manner through the efforts of the United Nations. According to this agreement a ceasefire was effected in Kashmir on 1 January 1949. It was decided that a free and impartial plebiscite would be held under the supervision of the UN.[42] The prime minister's diplomatic stance was met with hostility by the Pakistan Armed Forces and the socialists and communists, notably the mid-higher level command who would later sponsored an alleged coup led by the communists and socialists against his government.[40]

Soviet Union and United States[edit]

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Main articles: Pakistan–Soviet Union relations, United States-Pakistan relations, China–Pakistan relations, Pakistan-Poland relations, and Non-Aligned Movement

In 1949, the Soviet Union's leader, Joseph Stalin, sent an invitation to Ali Khan to visit the country, followed by a U.S. invitation after they learned of the Soviet move.[43] In May 1950, Prime minister Khan paid a state visit to the United States after being persuaded to snap ties with the Soviet Union, and set the course of Pakistan's foreign policy towards closer ties with the West, despite it was the Soviet Union who sent its invitation of Khan to visit the country.[43] The visit further cemented strong ties between two country and brought them closer.[44] To many sources, Khan's formulated policies were focused on Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, and his trip to U.S. in 1950, Khan had made clear that Pakistan's foreign policy was neutrality.[43] Being a newly born nation with trouble in planning the economy, Khan asked the U.S. for economic and moral support to enable it to stand in its feet.[44] The United States gladly accepted the offer and continued its aid throughout the years.[44] But ties deteriorated after United States asked Khan to send two combat divisions to support U.S. military operations in the Korean War.[44] Khan wanted to send the divisions, but asked the U.S. for assurances on Kashmir and the Pashtunisation issue, which the U.S. declined to give.[44] Khan decided not to send the divisions, a clear indication that Pakistan was working towards the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).[44] The United States began work on a policy to keep Pakistan impartial, and India on the other hand, remained a keystone to bringing stability in South Asia.[44] By June and July 1951, Pakistan's relations with U.S. deteriorated further, with Nehru visiting the United States, pressuring Pakistan to recall her troops from Kashmir.[44]

Pakistan had annexed half of Kashmir without [A]merican support..., and would be able to take the other half too.
— Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan telling the U.S., [45]

Khan's authorization of aggressive policies towards India, escalating to another war, had the U.S. worried.[45][self-published source] In an official meeting with Chief of Army Staff General Ayub Khan, Khan famously said: "I am sick and tired of these alarms and excursions. Let's fight it out!".[45] Following the Abadan Crisis, the U.S. began to pressure Khan to persuade Iran to transfer control of its oil fields to the United States., which Khan refused to do.[45] The U.S. threatened to cut off economic support to Pakistan and to annul the secret pact on Kashmir with India.[45] After hearing this from the U.S. AmbassadorAvra Warren, Khan's mood was much more aggressive, and he reportedly said: "Pakistan has annexed half of Kashmir without American support and would be able to take the other half too".[45] Khan also demanded U.S. evacuate its military bases in Pakistan.[45] In a declassified document, Khan's statements and aggressive mood were a "bombshell" for President Truman's presidency and for U.S. foreign policy.[45] In 1950, President Truman requested Khan to provide a military base for the Central Intelligence Agency to keep an eye on Soviet Union, which Khan hesitated and later refused to do, prompting the U.S. to begin planning to remove him from the country's politics once and for all.[45] The documents also point out that the U.S. reportedly hired the Pashtun assassins, promising the Afghan pashtuns to established the single state of Pashtunistan in 1952.[45]

Pakistan cannot afford to wait. She must take her friends where she finds them...!
— Liaquat Ali Khan calling the Soviet Union and China., [46]

Prime minister Khan began to developed tighter relations with the Soviet Union, China, Poland, and Iran under its PremierMohammed Mossadegh as well.[46] Khan sent invitations to Stalin and the Polish Communist leader Władysław Gomułka to visit the country.[46] However, the state visits by neither leaders were never paid after Khan was assassinated and Stalin died.[46] In 1948, Pakistan established relations with the Soviet Union, and an agreement was announced a month later.[46] The offing of U.S. trade had frustrated Khan, therefore, Khan sent career Foreign service officerJamsheed Marker as Pakistan Ambassador to the Soviet Union, a few months later, Soviet Ambassador arrived in Pakistan, with her large staff and accompanied military attaches.[46] In 1950, Ali Khan established relations with China by sending his ambassador, making Pakistan to become first Muslim country to established relations with China, a move which further dismayed the United States.[46] While in Iran, Liaquat Ali Khan talked to Soviet Ambassador and Moscow promptly extended an invitation to him to visit the Soviet Union.[46]

Struggle for control[edit]

After the 1947 war and the Balochistan conflict, Ali Khan's ability to run the country was put in doubt and great questions were raised by the communists and socialists active in the country.[40] In 1947–48 period, Ali Khan-Jinnah relations was contentious, and the senior military leadership and Jinnah himself became critic of his government.[47] In his last months, Jinnah came to realize that (his) prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan was a weak prime minister— a highly ambitious— and was not loyal to Jinnah and his vision in his dying days.[40]

The death of Jinnah was announced in 1948, as the new cabinet was also re-established. Ali Khan faced the problem of religious minorities during late 1949 and early 1950, and observers feared that India and Pakistan were about to fight their second war in the first three years of their independence. At this time, Ali Khan met Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to sign the Liaquat-Nehru Pact in 1950. The pact was an effort to improve relations and reduce tension between India and Pakistan, and to protect the religious minorities on both sides of the border.[48]

Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan did not take over the office of Governor-General, instead appointed Khawaja Nazimuddin, a Bengali statesman from East-Pakistan.[40] When Jinnah died, he had held three major positions: Governor-General; President of Muslim League; and the Constituent Assembly of which he served both its President and legal adviser.[40] Although Ali Khan was a legislator and lawyer, he lacked Jinnah's political stature.[40]

Differences and problems also leveled up with Pakistan Armed Forces, and a local and native section of Pakistan Army was completely hostile towards Ali Khan's diplomatic approach with India.[40] The existence of high level opposititon was revealed in Rawalpindi conspiracy, sponsored by Chief of General StaffMajor-GeneralAkbar Khan, and headed by communist leader Faiz Ahmad Faiz.[40] Another second concerned, Liaquat Ali Khan' intensified policies to make the country a parliamentary democracy and federal republic (current Pakistan's political structure).[40] During his tenure, Ali Khan supervised the promulgation of October Objectives in 1949 which passed by the Constituent Assembly. The document was aimed an Islamic, democratic and federal constitution and government. Disagreement existed about the approach and methods to realize these aims.[40]

The third major difference was itself in Muslim League, the party had weak political structure with no public base ground or support.[40] Its activities revealed in high factionalism, low commitment to resolve public problems, corruption and incompetency of planning social and economics programmes.[40] In East Pakistan, Ali Khan's lack of attention for the development of Bengali nation brought a bad juncture for the prime minister and his party, where its ideology was vague. In political base, it was both weak and narrow, and could not compete in West-Pakistan as well as in East-Pakistan where traditional families endorsed enormous political power.[40] In West Pakistan, the Muslim League failed to compete against the socialists and communists in East Pakistan.[40]

1951 military scandal[edit]

Ali Khan's relation with GeneralSir Douglas Gracey deteriorated, prompting General Gracy to take a retirement soon after the conflict. In January 1951, Ali Khan approved the appointment of GeneralAyub Khan as the first native Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army after General Gracey retired.[49]

During this time the socialists gained a significant amount of support, therefore, a secret mission was planned by senior military leaders under the auspicious of prominent socialists, to overthrow the government of Ali Khan. The media reported the involvement of Chief of General StaffMajor-GeneralAkbar Khan and the Marxist-SocialistFaiz Ahmad Faiz, leading the coup. The Military Police launched massive arrests inside the military services, more than 14 officers were charged for plotting the coup. The Rawalpindi Conspiracy, as it became known, was the first attempted coup in Pakistan's history. The arrested conspirators were tried in secret and given lengthy jail sentences.[50]


Liquat Ali Khan (second left, first row) and wife, Sheila Irene Pant (far right, first row), meeting with the Nawab of Amb in 1948.
Prime minister Ali Khan meeting with President and faculty of the MIT.
Prime minister Ali Khan addressing the American public at the local ceremony.

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