Research Paper Journal Sources

Biology

Range of open access peer reviewed Biology journals & associated research articles. Read full text articles or submit your research for publishing


Results 1-50 of 873 for Biology

Prophylactic Iron Supplementation in Pregnancy: A Controversial Issue
João Ricardo Friedrisch, Bruno Kras Friedrisch
Biochemistry Insights 2017:10 1178626417737738
Review | Published on 27 Oct 2017



Insights Into Upland Cotton ( L.) Genetic Recombination Based on 3 High-Density Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism and a Consensus Map Developed Independently With Common Parents
Mauricio Ulloa, Amanda M Hulse-Kemp, Luis M De Santiago, David M Stelly, John J Burke
Genomics Insights 2017:10 1178631017735104
Original Research | Published on 17 Oct 2017



Exon Mapping in Long Noncoding RNAs Using Digital Filters
Tina P George, Tessamma Thomas
Genomics Insights 2017:10 1178631017732029
Original Research | Published on 29 Sep 2017



Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition Modulates p53 Activity
Mohammad Althubiti
Journal of Cell Death 2017:10 1179066017731564
Original Research | Published on 20 Sep 2017



Gene-Set Reduction for Analysis of Major and Minor Gleason Scores Based on Differential Gene-Set Expressions and Biological Pathways in Prostate Cancer
Irina Dinu, Surya Poudel, Saumyadipta Pyne
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117730016
Original Research | Published on 11 Sep 2017



xSyn: A Software Tool for Identifying Sophisticated 3-Way Interactions From Cancer Expression Data
Baishali Bandyopadhyay, Veda Chanda, Yupeng Wang
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117728516
Methodology | Published on 28 Aug 2017



Adaptive Multiview Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Algorithm for Integration of Multimodal Biomedical Data
Bisakha Ray, Wenke Liu, David Fenyö
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117725727
Methodology | Published on 18 Aug 2017



Multiple Testing in the Context of Gene Discovery in Sickle Cell Disease Using Genome-Wide Association Studies
Kevin H.M. Kuo
Genomics Insights 2017:10 1178631017721178
Review | Published on 01 Aug 2017



Immuno-Oncology Integrative Networks: Elucidating the Influences of Osteosarcoma Phenotypes
Ankush Sharma, Enrico Capobianco
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117721691
Original Research | Published on 26 Jul 2017



Linear-In-Flux-Expressions Methodology: Toward a Robust Mathematical Framework for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Simulators
Sean T McQuade, Ruth E Abrams, Jeffrey S Barrett, Benedetto Piccoli, Karim Azer
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 2017:11 1177625017711414
Review | Published on 26 Jul 2017



DNA Microarray Analysis of Estrogen Responsive Genes in Ishikawa Cells by Glabridin
Poh Su Wei Melissa, Yong Voon Chen Phelim, Visweswaran Navaratnam, Chia Yoke Yin
Biochemistry Insights 2017:10 1178626417721676
Original Research | Published on 26 Jul 2017



Prediction With Dimension Reduction of Multiple Molecular Data Sources for Patient Survival
Adam Kaplan, Eric F Lock
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117718517
Methodology | Published on 11 Jul 2017



The Impact of Collisions on the Ability to Detect Rare Mutant Alleles Using Barcode-Type Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques
Jenna VanLiere Canzoniero, Karen Cravero, Ben Ho Park
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117719236
Original Research | Published on 10 Jul 2017



Insights Into Signaling in Cell-Based Therapy for Heart Disease
Angela C Rieger, Bryon A Tompkins, Monisha Banerjee, Makoto Natsumeda, Victoria Florea, Ivonne H Schulman
Signal Transduction Insights 2017:6 1178643417717688
Review | Published on 10 Jul 2017



Extracellular Chaperones in Neuronal Proteinopathies: Protecting and Facilitating Neuronal Function
Sandeep Satapathy
Cell Communication Insights 2017:9 1179568917717952
Review | Published on 05 Jul 2017



An Assessment of Database-Validated microRNA Target Genes in Normal Colonic Mucosa: Implications for Pathway Analysis
Martha L Slattery, Jennifer S Herrick, John R Stevens, Roger K Wolff, Lila E Mullany
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117716405
Original Research | Published on 23 Jun 2017



A Software Application for Mining and Presenting Relevant Cancer Clinical Trials per Cancer Mutation
Lisa M Gandy, Jordan Gumm, Amanda L Blackford, Elana J Fertig, Luis A Diaz
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117711940
Original Research | Published on 22 Jun 2017



A Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Platform to Investigate the Impact of Alirocumab and Cholesterol-Lowering Therapies on Lipid Profiles and Plaque Characteristics
Jeffrey E Ming, Ruth E Abrams, Derek W Bartlett, Mengdi Tao, Tu Nguyen, Howard Surks, Katherine Kudrycki, Ananth Kadambi, Christina M Friedrich, Nassim Djebli, Britta Goebel, Alex Koszycki, Meera Varshnaya, Joseph Elassal, Poulabi Banerjee, William J Sasiela, Michael J Reed, Jeffrey S Barrett, Karim Azer
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 2017:11 1177625017710941
Original Research | Published on 22 Jun 2017



The Model-Based Study of the Effectiveness of Reporting Lists of Small Feature Sets Using RNA-Seq Data
Eunji Kim, Ivan Ivanov, Jianping Hua, Johanna W Lampe, Meredith AJ Hullar, Robert S Chapkin, Edward R Dougherty
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117710530
Methodology | Published on 12 Jun 2017



Tumor RAS Gene Expression Levels Are Influenced by the Mutational Status of RAS Genes and Both Upstream and Downstream RAS Pathway Genes
Robert M Stephens, Ming Yi, Bailey Kessing, Dwight V Nissley, Frank McCormick
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117711944
Original Research | Published on 08 Jun 2017



A Transcriptional Regulatory Role for the Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase in Carcinogen-Induced Inflammasome Gene Expression
Samuel Sheehy, Borhane Annabi
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 2017:11 1177625017713996
Original Research | Published on 08 Jun 2017



Overexpression and Knockdown of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Disrupt the Expression of Steroidogenic Enzyme Genes and Early Embryonic Development in Zebrafish
Tianfeng Tan, Richard Man Kit Yu, Rudolf Shiu Sun Wu, Richard Yuen Chong Kong
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 2017:11 1177625017713193
Original Research | Published on 08 Jun 2017



Lung Cancer Pathological Image Analysis Using a Hidden Potts Model
Qianyun Li, Faliu Yi, Tao Wang, Guanghua Xiao, Faming Liang
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117711910
Original Research | Published on 05 Jun 2017



Immune Checkpoint Inhibition and the Prevalence of Autoimmune Disorders Among Patients With Lung and Renal Cancer
Sherif M El-Refai, Joshua D Brown, Esther P Black, Jeffery C Talbert
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117712520
Original Research | Published on 01 Jun 2017



Sequence Analysis and Phylogenetic Studies of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α
Jagadeesha Poyya, Chandrashekhar G Joshi, D Jagadeesha Kumar, HG Nagendra
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117712242
Original Research | Published on 31 May 2017



Mechanistic Modelling of Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Investigating the Role of Innate Immune Responses
Lisl KM Shoda, Christina Battista, Scott Q Siler, David S Pisetsky, Paul B Watkins, Brett A Howell
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 2017:11 1177625017696074
Review | Published on 30 May 2017



Effects of High-Fat Feeding on Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats
Jing Nie, Debra C DuBois, Bai Xue, William J Jusko, Richard R Almon
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 2017:11 1177625017710009
Original Research | Published on 29 May 2017



Quantitative Study of Thermal Disturbances Due to Nonuniformly Perfused Tumors in Peripheral Regions of Women’s Breast
Akshara Makrariya, Neeru Adlakha
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117700894
Original Research | Published on 15 May 2017



Time-Based Switching Control of Genetic Regulatory Networks: Toward Sequential Drug Intake for Cancer Therapy
Wasiu Opeyemi Oduola, Xiangfang Li, Chang Duan, Lijun Qian, Fen Wu, Edward R Dougherty
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117706888
Review | Published on 10 May 2017



Applying Multivariate Adaptive Splines to Identify Genes With Expressions Varying After Diagnosis in Microarray Experiments
Fenghai Duan, Ye Xu
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117705381
Review | Published on 04 May 2017



The Synergistic Role of Light-Feeding Phase Relations on Entraining Robust Circadian Rhythms in the Periphery
Seul-A Bae, Ioannis P Androulakis
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 2017:11 1177625017702393
Review | Published on 20 Apr 2017



The Role of the Growth Hormone/Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in Visceral Adiposity
Moira S Lewitt
Biochemistry Insights 2017:10 1178626417703995
Review | Published on 20 Apr 2017



miR-10a and miR-204 as a Potential Prognostic Indicator in Low-Grade Gliomas
Ju Cheol Son, Hyoung Oh Jeong, Deaui Park, Sang Gyoon No, Eun Kyeong Lee, Jaewon Lee, Hae Young Chung
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117702878
Original Research | Published on 12 Apr 2017



A mixture copula Bayesian network model for multimodal genomic data
Qingyang Zhang, Xuan Shi
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117702389
Methodology | Published on 12 Apr 2017



Bioinformatics Education in Pathology Training: Current Scope and Future Direction
Michael R Clay, Kevin E Fisher
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117703389
Review | Published on 10 Apr 2017



Time Course Expression Analysis of 1[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole Induction of Cytoprotection in Human Endothelial Cells
James A Bynum, Xinyu Wang, Salomon A Stavchansky, Phillip D Bowman
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 2017:11 1177625017701106
Original Research | Published on 07 Apr 2017



In Vitro Neurotoxicity Resulting from Exposure of Cultured Neural Cells to Several Types of Nanoparticles
Stephen F Larner, Jonathan Wang, Jared Goodman, Megan B O’Donoghue Altman, Meiguo Xin, Kevin K W Wang
Journal of Cell Death 2017:10 1179670717694523
Review | Published on 23 Mar 2017



Therapeutic Interventions of Cancers Using Intrinsically Disordered Proteins as Drug Targets: c-Myc as Model System
Deepak Kumar, Nitin Sharma, Rajanish Giri
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117699408
Review | Published on 16 Mar 2017



Use of Biomedical Ontologies for Integration of Biological Knowledge for Learning and Prediction of Adverse Drug Reactions
Shadia Zaman, Sirarat Sarntivijai, Darrell R Abernethy
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 2017:11 1177625017696075
Review | Published on 15 Mar 2017



Nuclear Factor κB Activation Pathways During Infection
Eduardo P Amaral, Bruno B Andrade
Cell Communication Insights 2017:9 1179568917695833
Review | Published on 14 Mar 2017



Graphical Modeling Meets Systems Pharmacology
Rosario Lombardo, Corrado Priami
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 2017:11 1177625017691937
Perspective | Published on 10 Mar 2017



Roadmap to a Comprehensive Clinical Data Warehouse for Precision Medicine Applications in Oncology
David J Foran, Wenjin Chen, Huiqi Chu, Evita Sadimin, Doreen Loh, Gregory Riedlinger, Lauri A Goodell, Shridar Ganesan, Kim Hirshfield, Lorna Rodriguez, Robert S DiPaola
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117694349
Original Research | Published on 02 Mar 2017



In Vitro Cell Death Determination for Drug Discovery: A Landscape Review of Real Issues
Benoite Méry, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Alexis Vallard, Sophie Espenel, Dominique Ardail, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Chloé Rancoule, Nicolas Magné
Journal of Cell Death 2017:10 1179670717691251
Review | Published on 24 Feb 2017



Integrative Analysis of Gene Networks and Their Application to Lung Adenocarcinoma Studies
Sangin Lee, Faming Liang, Ling Cai, Guanghua Xiao
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117690778
Original Research | Published on 23 Feb 2017



Significant Prognostic Features and Patterns of Somatic Mutations in Human Cancers
Wensheng Zhang, Andrea Edwards, Erik K Flemington, Kun Zhang
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935117691267
Original Research | Published on 20 Feb 2017



Crosstalk Between Apoptosis and Autophagy: Environmental Genotoxins, Infection, and Innate Immunity
Michael G Kemp
Journal of Cell Death 2017:9 1179670716685085
Review | Published on 20 Feb 2017



Improving Gastric Cancer Outcome Prediction Using Single Time-Point Artificial Neural Network Models
Hamid Nilsaz-Dezfouli, Mohd Rizam Abu-Bakar, Jayanthi Arasan, Mohd Bakri Adam, Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935116686062
Original Research | Published on 16 Feb 2017



External Quality Assessment in the Evaluation of Laboratory Performance of Faecal Culture
Salla J Kiiskinen, Tarja Ojanen, Yvonne Björkman, Harri Laitinen, Anja Siitonen
Microbiology Insights 2017:10 1178636117691253
Original Research | Published on 16 Feb 2017



The Impact of the Unfolded Protein Response and the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway on Glycosylation
Aarti A Ramanathan, Anand Mehta, Carol M Artlett
Glycobiology Insights 2017:6 1179251516688214
Review | Published on 16 Feb 2017



A Numerical Handling of the Boundary Conditions Imposed by the Skull on an Inhomogeneous Diffusion-Reaction Model of Glioblastoma Invasion Into the Brain: Clinical Validation Aspects
Georgios S Stamatakos, Stavroula G Giatili
Cancer Informatics 2017:16 1176935116684824
Original Research | Published on 03 Feb 2017




WRITING A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ARTICLE

| Format for the paper | Edit your paper! | Useful books |

FORMAT FOR THE PAPER

Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work.  This format is:

| Title | Authors | Introduction | Materials and Methods | Results (with Tables and Figures) | Discussion | Acknowledgments | Literature Cited |

TITLE

  1. Make your title specific enough to describe the contents of the paper, but not so technical that only specialists will understand. The title should be appropriate for the intended audience.
  2. The title usually describes the subject matter of the article: Effect of Smoking on Academic Performance"
  3. Sometimes a title that summarizes the results is more effective: Students Who Smoke Get Lower Grades"

AUTHORS

1. The person who did the work and wrote the paper is generally listed as the first author of a research paper.

2. For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors. Ask your mentor's permission before including his/her name as co-author.

ABSTRACT

1. An abstract, or summary, is published together with a research article, giving the reader a "preview" of what's to come. Such abstracts may also be published separately in bibliographical sources, such as Biologic al Abstracts. They allow other scientists to quickly scan the large scientific literature, and decide which articles they want to read in depth. The abstract should be a little less technical than the article itself; you don't want to dissuade your potent ial audience from reading your paper.

2. Your abstract should be one paragraph, of 100-250 words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper.

3. It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words. Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaini ng the necessary concepts.

3. Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes.

INTRODUCTION

What question did you ask in your experiment? Why is it interesting? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

1. How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section.

2. If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used.

3. Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. ("In a preliminary study, I observed the owls for one week, and found that 73 % of their locomotor activity occurred during the night, and so I conducted all subsequent experiments between 11 pm and 6 am.")

4. Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain?

RESULTS

1. This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion.

2. You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten during the semester. This isn't a diary.

3. Use appropriate methods of showing data. Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did.

"The drug cured 1/3 of the infected mice, another 1/3 were not affected, and the third mouse got away."

TABLES AND GRAPHS

1. If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table ("Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results".) For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes.

2. Don't use a table or graph just to be "fancy". If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary.

DISCUSSION

1. Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question? Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do y our results fit into the big picture?

2. End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This section is optional. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza.

REFERENCES (LITERATURE CITED)

There are several possible ways to organize this section. Here is one commonly used way:

1. In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places:

Scarlet (1990) thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus (Indigo and Mauve, 1994) and wombat (Magenta, et al., 1995).

2. In the References section list citations in alphabetical order.

Indigo, A. C., and Mauve, B. E. 1994. Queer place for qwerty: gene isolation from the platypus. Science 275, 1213-1214.

Magenta, S. T., Sepia, X., and Turquoise, U. 1995. Wombat genetics. In: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q., ed. New York: Columbia University Press. p 123-145.

Scarlet, S.L. 1990. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. cerevisae. Journal of Unusual Results 36, 26-31.

 

EDIT YOUR PAPER!!!

"In my writing, I average about ten pages a day. Unfortunately, they're all the same page."

A major part of any writing assignment consists of re-writing.

Write accurately

  1. Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate. (A student who tried not to repeat the word "hamster" produced this confusing sentence: "When I put the hamster in a cage with the other animals, the little mammals began to play.")
  2. Make sure you say what you mean.
  3. Instead of: The rats were injected with the drug. (sounds like a syringe was filled with drug and ground-up rats and both were injected together)
    Write: I injected the drug into the rat.

  4. Be careful with commonly confused words:

Temperature has an effect on the reaction.
Temperature affects the reaction.

I used solutions in various concentrations. (The solutions were 5 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml, and 15 mg/ml)
I used solutions in varying concentrations. (The concentrations I used changed; sometimes they were 5 mg/ml, other times they were 15 mg/ml.)

 Less food (can't count numbers of food)
Fewer animals (can count numbers of animals)

A large amount of food (can't count them)
A large number of animals (can count them)

The erythrocytes, which are in the blood, contain hemoglobin.
The erythrocytes that are in the blood contain hemoglobin. (Wrong. This sentence implies that there are erythrocytes elsewhere that don't contain hemoglobin.)

Write clearly

1. Write at a level that's appropriate for your audience.

"Like a pigeon, something to admire as long as it isn't over your head." Anonymous

 2. Use the active voice. It's clearer and more concise than the passive voice.

 Instead of: An increased appetite was manifested by the rats and an increase in body weight was measured.
Write: The rats ate more and gained weight.

 3. Use the first person.

 Instead of: It is thought
Write: I think

 Instead of: The samples were analyzed
Write: I analyzed the samples

 4. Avoid dangling participles.

 "After incubating at 30 degrees C, we examined the petri plates." (You must've been pretty warm in there.)

 Write succinctly

 1. Use verbs instead of abstract nouns

 Instead of: take into consideration
Write: consider

 2. Use strong verbs instead of "to be"

 Instead of: The enzyme was found to be the active agent in catalyzing...
Write: The enzyme catalyzed...

 3. Use short words.

"I would never use a long word where a short one would answer the purpose. I know there are professors in this country who 'ligate' arteries. Other surgeons tie them, and it stops the bleeding just as well."
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr .

have
sufficientenough
utilizeuse
demonstrateshow
assistancehelp
terminateend

4. Use concise terms.

 Instead of:Write:
prior to before
due to the fact thatbecause
in a considerable number of casesoften
the vast majority ofmost
during the time thatwhen
in close proximity tonear
it has long been known thatI'm too lazy to look up the reference

5. Use short sentences. A sentence made of more than 40 words should probably be rewritten as two sentences.

 "The conjunction 'and' commonly serves to indicate that the writer's mind still functions even when no signs of the phenomenon are noticeable." Rudolf Virchow, 1928

  

Check your grammar, spelling and punctuation

1. Use a spellchecker, but be aware that they don't catch all mistakes.

 "When we consider the animal as a hole,..." Student's paper

 2. Your spellchecker may not recognize scientific terms. For the correct spelling, try Biotech's Life Science Dictionary or one of the technical dictionaries on the reference shelf in the Biology or Health Sciences libraries.

 3. Don't, use, unnecessary, commas.

 4. Proofread carefully to see if you any words out.

USEFUL BOOKS

Victoria E. McMillan, Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences, Bedford Books, Boston, 1997
The best. On sale for about $18 at Labyrinth Books, 112th Street. On reserve in Biology Library

Jan A. Pechenik, A Short Guide to Writing About Biology, Boston: Little, Brown, 1987

Harrison W. Ambrose, III & Katharine Peckham Ambrose, A Handbook of Biological Investigation, 4th edition, Hunter Textbooks Inc, Winston-Salem, 1987
Particularly useful if you need to use statistics to analyze your data. Copy on Reference shelf in Biology Library.

Robert S. Day, How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, 4th edition, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1994.
Earlier editions also good. A bit more advanced, intended for those writing papers for publication. Fun to read. Several copies available in Columbia libraries.

William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, 3rd ed. Macmillan, New York, 1987.
Several copies available in Columbia libraries.  Strunk's first edition is available on-line.

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